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Behaviorism

Watson's science of behavior, which dealt solely with observable behavioral acts that could be described in objective terms.

Cognitive psychology

A system of psychology that focuses on the process of knowing, on how the mind actively organizes experiences.

Functionalism

A system of psychology concerned with the mind as it is used in an organism's adaptation to its environment.

Gestalt psychology

A system of psychology that focuses largely on learning and perception, suggesting that combining sensory elements produces new patterns with properties that did not exist in the individual elements.

Historiography

The principles, methods, and philosophical issues of historical research.

Humanistic psychology

A system of psychology that emphasizes the study of conscious experience and the wholeness of human nature.

Naturalistic theory

The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the Zeitgeist, which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not to others.

Personalistic theory

The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the ideas of unique individuals.

Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud's theory of personality and system of psychotherapy.

Structuralism

E. B. Titchener's system of psychology, which dealt with conscious experience as dependent on experiencing persons.

Zeitgeist

The intellectual and cultural climate or spirit of the times

Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences begin publication

1965

The one aspect of the discipline that provides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its

history

The hallmark of psychology's separation from philosophy was its reliance on

Experimentation

An "autobiography" of Jung was evidently written not by Jung but by an assistant who

altered and/or deleted some of Jung's writings to present him in a manner suiting his family and followers.

Freud's idea "Einfall" was translated to English into the term ________ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German

Free Association

The first African American president of the APA was

Kenneth Clark

The viewpoint that whatever discovery was about to happen today, Freud would discover it would be an argument for which of the following theories

Personalistic

In the 1970s, the publication of the research of John Garcia was significantly delayed because

his findings challenged the prevailing view in stimulus-response (S-R) learning theory.

In Kuhn's philosophy of science, when Einstein's theory of relativity replaced Galilean-Newtonian physics, a(n) ________ occurred

Scientific revolution

Association

The notion that knowledge results from linking or associating simple ideas to form complex ideas.

Contiguity

The notion that the more closely linked two ideas are in time or place, the more readily they will be associated.

Creative synthesis

The notion that complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities; the combination of the mental elements creates something greater than or different from the sum of the original elements.

Derived and innate ideas

Derived ideas are produced by the direct application of an external stimulus; innate ideas arise from the mind or consciousness, independent of sensory experiences or external stimuli.

Determinism

The doctrine that acts are determined by past events.

Empiricism

The pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience.

Materialism

The doctrine that considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physical terms by the existence and nature of matter.

Mechanism

The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry.

Mentalism

The doctrine that all knowledge is a function of mental phenomena and dependent on the perceiving or experiencing person.

Mind-body problem

The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities.

Positivism

The doctrine that recognizes only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable.

Primary and secondary qualities

Primary qualities are characteristics such as size and shape that exist in an object whether or not we perceive them; secondary qualities are characteristics such as color and odor that exist in our perception of the object.

Reductionism

The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas).

Reflex action theory

The idea that an external object (a stimulus) can bring about an involuntary response.

Reflex arc

The connection between sensory stimuli and motor responses.

Repetition

The notion that the more frequently two ideas occur together, the more readily they will be associated.

Simple and complex ideas

Simple ideas are elemental ideas that arise from sensation and reflection; complex ideas are derived ideas that are compounded of simple ideas and thus can be analyzed or reduced to their simpler components.

The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is

mechanism

Which of the following ideas has psychology borrowed from natural physics?

Effects are predictable and measurable.

Philosophers and scientists joined in agreement that

experimental and quantitative methods could be applied to the study of human nature

Empiricism attributes all knowledge to

Experience

In the 20th century, Hull described and explained behavior by mathematical formulas, axioms, and postulates. Thus, he illustrated whose notion that certainty of knowledge is accomplished by the application of mathematics to science?

Descartes

Descartes argued that all processes are functions of the body except

Thought

Descartes is often called the author of the theory of

Reflex Action

Descartes posited that the mind-body interaction occurred in the

Pineal body

Descartes theorized that we are born with knowledge of the axioms of geometry. Thus, these axioms are ________ ideas

innate

Those who argue today that behavior is no more than the action of chemicals and electrical events in the brain might be labeled "modern ________."

Materialists

Absolute threshold

The point of sensitivity below which no sensations can be detected and above which sensations can be experienced.

Clinical method

Posthumous examination of brain structures to detect damaged areas assumed to be responsible for behavioral conditions that existed before the person died.

Differential threshold

The point of sensitivity at which the least amount of change in a stimulus gives rise to a change in sensation.

Electrical stimulation

A technique for exploring the cerebral cortex with weak electric current to observe motor responses.

Extirpation

A technique for determining the function of a given part of an animal's brain by removing or destroying it and observing the resulting behavior changes.

Just noticeable difference

The smallest difference that can be detected between two physical stimuli.

Psychophysics

The scientific study of the relations between mental and physical processes.

Two-point threshold

The threshold at which two points of stimulation can be distinguished as such.

Until the work of ________, experimentation was not the preferred method in physiology

Muller

In his research, Flourens localized specific functions to how many brain areas?

4

________ produced the theory of cranioscopy.

Gall

The researcher credited with the finding or conclusion that nerve impulses are electrical within the neuron is:

Galvani

Who devised a theory of color vision as well as conducted research on audition?

Helmholtz

Who developed both the two-point threshold and the concept of the just noticeable difference?

Weber

While euphoric and suffering from delusions of grandeur, Fechner:

developed the idea of the pleasure principle.

Fechner proposed two ways to measure the lowest level of a sensation. One was the point of stimulus intensity below which no sensation is reported and above which subjects do experience a sensation; the other was:

whether or not a stimulus is present or absent, sensed or not sensed.

In Fechner's Law, as one variable increases arithmetically, the other variable increases:

geometrically

In the original source material from one of his books, Fechner states that, "________ depends on ________".

sensation; stimulation

Act psychology

Brentano's system of psychology, which focused on mental activities (e.g., seeing) rather than on mental contents (e.g., that which is seen).

Apperception

The process by which mental elements are organized.

Imageless thought

Külpe's idea that meaning in thought can occur without any sensory or imaginal component.

Introspection

Examination of one's own mind to inspect and report on personal thoughts or feelings.

Mediate and immediate experience

Mediate experience provides information about something other than the elements of that experience; immediate experience is unbiased by interpretation.

Nonsense syllables

Syllables presented in a meaningless series to study memory processes.

Phenomenology

Stumpf's introspective method that examined experience as it occurred and did not try to reduce experience to elementary components. Also, an: approach to knowledge based on an unbiased description of immediate experience as it occurs, not analyzed or reduced to elements.

Systematic experimental introspection

Külpe's introspective method that used retrospective reports of subjects' cognitive processes after they had completed an experimental task.

Tridimensional theory of feelings

Wundt's explanation for feeling states based on three dimensions: pleasure/displeasure, tension/ relaxation, and excitement/depression.

Voluntarism

The idea that the mind has the capacity to organize mental contents into higher-level thought processes

In 1867, Wundt offered the first course ever given in

physiological psychology.

Wundt's productivity as a writer can be quantified by his output, which averaged:

2.2 pages a day for over 50 years.

Wundt's observers used introspection to report:

judgments about the size and intensity of physical stimuli.

According to Wundt, there were two elementary forms of experience, namely

Sensation and feeling

Wundt's doctrine of apperception refers to:

the process of organizing mental elements into a whole.

Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because:

it was not seen as having practical value.

While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong?

Ebbinghaus

Stimulus error

Confusing the mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed.

Titchener discarded aspects of Wundt's system, including:

apperception

One of Titchener's most profound influences on the development of experimentation in psychology was his publication:

Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice (1901-1905).

Who scolded Titchener for still practicing "a very old fashioned standpoint" in excluding women from psychology meetings?

Ladd-Franklin

Who was Titchener's first doctoral student?

Washburn

Which of the following was a topic to be explored by Titchener's psychology?

The reduction of conscious processes, The determination of the laws of association of elements of consciousness, To identify the physiological correlates of the elements

By the 1920s, the term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was ________.

Existential

Substantial doubts about, and attacks on, introspection:

existed long before Titchener used the method.

Ordinary words such as "table" were not to be used by Titchener's introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to:

develop a working vocabulary free of meaning.

Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of:

retrospection

The two most important contributions of Titchener's system to modern psychology are:

his experimental method and a strong position to protest.

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