The Human Body in Health and Disease chapter 7

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88 terms · The Skeletal System

functions of the skeletal system

support, protection, movement, storage, hematopoiesis

types of bones

long, short, flat, irregular

hematopoiesis

production of blood cells

epiphysis

ends of long bone

diaphysis

shaft of long bone

medullary cavity

hollow area inside the diaphysis of a long bone, contains yellow bone marrow

endosteum

membrane that lines medullary cavity

periosteum

membrane that covers long bone

articular cartilage

cartilage that covers epiphysis, acts as a cushion for bones in a joint

compact bone

dense bone surrounding cancellous bone

cancellous bone

spongy bone found in the epiphyses, spaces are filled with red bone marrow

trabeculae

bony portions of spongy bone surrounding the open spaces

cartilage

fibrous connective tissue with the consistency of firm plastic

osteon or Haversian system

structural unit of bone

osteocyte

bone cell

osteoclast

bone-resorbing cell

osteoblast

bone-forming cell

chondrocyte

cartilage cell

endochondral ossification

process in which most bones are formed from cartilage models

cranium

bones of the skull

costal

pertaining to the ribs

scapula

shoulder blade

sternum

breast bone

femur

thigh bone

fibula

slender, non-weight bearing bone on lateral aspect of the lower leg

tibia

shinbone

humerus

bone of upper arm

ulna

bone of forearm located on little finger side

radius

bone of forearm located on thumb side

clavicle

collarbone

axial skeleton

bones of skull, spine, chest, and hyoid bone

appendicular skeleton

bones of upper and lower extremities, includes shoulder and pelvic girdles

frontal bone

forehead

parietal bone

forms bulging topsides of cranium

temporal bone

forms lower sides of cranium

occipital bone

forms back of skull

ethmoid bone

forms floor of cranium, side walls and roof of nose and part of nasal septum and part of orbit

sphenoid bone

forms part of floor of cranium

sinus

spaces or cavities in some cranial bones

vertebra

spinal bone

cervical vertebrae

upper 7 vertebrae in the neck

thoracic vertebrae

12 vertebrae to which ribs attach

lumbar vertebrae

5 vertebrae in the lower back

sacrum

shield-shaped bone, fusion of 5 vertebrae in adult

coccyx

tailbone

carpals

wrist bones, 8 in each wrist

metacarpals

bones that form framework of palm of hand

tarsals

ankle bones, 7 in each ankle

metatarsals

bones that form foot

calcaneous

heelbone

phalanges

finger and toe bones, 14 in each hand and foot

patella

kneecap

ligament

band of fibrous connective tissue that connects bones

tendon

band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone

synarthrosis

a joint with no movement

amphiarthrosis

a joint containing cartilage which allows slight movement

diarthrosis

a freely movable joint

ball and socket joint

allows widest range of movement, the shoulder and hip joints

hinge joint

allows flexion and extension, the elbow and knee

pivot joint

allows rotation, the head at the neck joint

gliding joint

between vertebrae

arthritis

inflammatory joint disease

osteoarthritis

non-inflammatory degenerative joint disease

rheumatoid arthritis

chronic inflammation of connective tissues, crippling arthritis

gouty arthritis

metabolic condition in which excess uric acid is depositied as crystals in joints

infectious arthritis

Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis

osteomyelitis

inflammation of bone and bone marrow

bursitis

inflammation of bursae

fracture

broken bone

simple fracture

closed fracture, bone does not pierce skin

compound fracture

open fracture, bone pierces skin

comminuted fracture

bone is broken into many fragments

impacted fracture

bone fragments are driven into each other

complete fracture

bone fragments separate completely

incomplete fracture

bone fragments are still partially joined

linear fracture

fracture is parallel to the bone's axis

transverse fracture

fracture is at a right angle to the bone's axis

oblique fracture

fracture is diagonal to the bone's long axis

sprain

injury to ligaments around a joint

strain

injury to the muscle, tendon, and attachments

subluxation

dislocation of bone from joint

osteoporosis

disorder in which bones lose minerals and become less dense

osteosarcoma

bone cancer

chondrosarcoma

cancer of cartilage

rickets

demineralization of bone in children due to vitamin D deficiency

osteomalacia

demineralization of bone in adults due to vitamin D deficiency

Paget disease (osteitis deformans)

disease characterized by uncontrolled episodes of osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity

osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease)

genetic disease in which bones lack collagen

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