(Chapter 5) Functions of the Integumentary System

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Functions, Types of skin cancer and Burns

List the functions of the Integumentary System

protection, body temperature regulation, cutaneous sensation, metabolic functions, blood reservoir and excretion

There are three types of protective barriers, what are they?

Chemical barriers, Physical/Mechanical barriers and Biological barriers

What is the natural antibiotic found in chemical barriers?

defensins, this is secreted from skin cells

The chemical barrier includes skin ______ and _____.

secretion and melanin

Physical/mechanical barriers are provided by the ____ of ____ and the hardness of its ______ cells.

continuity of skin, keratinized

Biological barriers include _____ cells of the epidermis, ______ in the dermis and also DNA.

Langerhan's, macrophages

The body works best when its temperature remains within _______ limits.

homeostatic

There are four Mechanism of Heat Exchange, what are they?

radiation, conduction, convection and evaporation

____ is important to maintain performance

hydration

The skin is richly supplied with cutaneous _____ _____.

sensory receptors

Cutaneous sensation/receptors are found mostly here.

the epidermis

Cutaneous receptors are classified as ______ because the respond to stimuli arising outside the body

exteroceptors

What is an example of an exteroceptor?

Meissner's corpuscles and tactile discs, Merkel discs, Pacinian receptors

The skin can be referred to as a _____ factory.

chemical

Metabolic functions are critical for this process

synthesis of Vitamin D

True or False. Metabolic functions aid in calcium absorption

True, however, this is not possible without vitamin D

Metabolic functions produce ______ enzymes that neutralize many cancer-causing chemicals that may penetrate the epidermis

keratinocyte

Metabolic functions produce an enzyme called ____ that produces collagen and helps fight wrinkles

collagenase

True or False. The dermis is avascular.

False. The dermis is highly vascularized.

The blood reservoir holds large volumes of the _____ _____.

body's blood

Most waste in the body is excreted through this.

the urine

Small amounts of nitrogen-containing wastes (ammonia, urea and uric acid) are excreted in ___.

sweat

The skin can develop more than ____ different conditions/ailments

1000

There are several common skin disorders, name the three most common ones.

bacterial, viral and yeast

This type of skin cancer is the least malignant and the most common type of skin cancer.

basal cell carcinoma

True or False. Basal cell carcinoma is fast growing.

false. It is relatively slow growing

Where is the most common area the basal cell carcinoma effects?

sun-exposed areas of the face

Does basal cell carcinoma metastasize and how successful is surgical excision?

Metastasis seldom occurs in basal cell carcinoma and the surgical excision has a 99% cure rate

This is the second most common type of skin cancer and it arise from keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum.

squamous cell carcinoma

What is the appearance of the lesions and where are they typically found, of a person with squamous cell carcinoma?

The appearance of the lesion are scaly reddened papule (or small, rounded elevation) and are found typically on the head on the scalp, ears and lower lip

Squamous cell carcinoma tends to grow ____

rapidly

True or False. Squamous cell carcinoma will metastasize if not removed.

True

True or False. If caught early enough and removed, the recovery from squamous cell carcinoma still has little to no success.

False. If removed and use of radiation, it has a high success rate

This is the most dangerous type of skin cancer because it is highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy.

melanoma

Cancer of the melanocytes is known as this.

melanoma

Melanoma accounts for what percent of all skin cancers in the U.S. each year

approximately 5%

True or False. Melanoma can begin wherever there is pigment

True

Melanoma appears ____ and about 1/3 develop from preexisting _____ (looks like a spreading brown to black patch).

spontaneously, moles

Melanoma metastasized ______ to the lymphatic system and _____ _____.

rapidly, blood vessels

The key to surviving melanoma is ____ _____.

early detection

The change of a person surviving with melanoma is ____ if the lesion is over __ mm thick.

poor, 4

Therapy for melanoma is wide surgical excision accompanied by _______

immunotherapy (immunizing the body against its cancer cells)

_____ _____ are most susceptible to melanoma

Sun Worshippers

The American Cancer Society suggest that Sun Worshipper regularly examine their skin and use this rule for recognizing melanoma.

The ABCD(e) rule

What does "A" stand for in the ABCD(e) rule?

Asymmetry

What does "B" stand for in the ABCD(e) rule?

Border Irregularity

What does "C" stand for in the ABCD(e) rule?

Color (blacks, browns, tans and sometimes blues and reds)

What does "D" stand for in the ABCD(e) rule?

Diameter (6+ mm)

What does "(e)" stand for in the ABCD(e) rule?

Elevation

Define: Burn

a burn is tissue damage caused by intense heat, electricity, radiation or certain chemicals (denature cell proteins and cause cell death in affected areas)

Severe burns lead to a significant ____ of ____ ____ (containing proteins and electrolytes), this results in _____ and electrolyte imbalance

loss of body fluids, dehydration

Loss of body fluids can also lead to ____ shutdown and _____ shock and therefore must be replaced immediately

renal, circulatory

In adults, the volume of fluid lost can be estimated by computing the percentage of body surface burned using this rule.

The rule of nines

The rule of nines divides the body into 11 areas, each of the areas account for __% of total body area plus an additional 1% for the area surround the ______.

9, genitals

What are the nine area described in the rule of nines method?

anterior and posterior neck, anterior and posterior upper limbs, anterior and posterior trunk, anterior and posterior lower limbs and perineum

How are burn classified?

Burns are classified according to their severity as first, second, third and fourth degree

First-degree burns involve only the _____ and symptoms include _____, _____, and pain.

epidermis, redness, swelling

An example of a first-degree burn would be ____ and typically tend to heal in __ to __ days.

sunburn, 2 to 3

Second-degree burns injure the _____ and the upper region of the _____. Symptoms are similar to first-degree but ______ also appear

epidermis, dermis, blisters

Second-degree burns tend to heal within __ to __ weeks and skin regeneration occurs with little to no _____. (only true if taken care of properly)

3 to 4, scarring

First and Second-degree burns are also referred to as this.

Partial-thickness burns

Third-degree burns are also referred to as this.

Full-thickness burns

Third-degree burns involve the ____ thickness of the skin and since the nerve endings have been ______ there is little to no _____

entire, destroyed, pain

With third-degree burns, ____ ____ is usually necessary even though the skin regeneration might eventually occur

skin grafting

Third-degree burns tend to heal within __ to __ weeks unless _____ occurs.

3 to 4, infections

True or False. Third-degree burn victims are only at a moderate risk for infections.

False. There are at a HIGH risk for infections.

Fourth-degree burns go down to the ______.

muscle

Burns are considered critical if (1) over __% of the body has second-degree burns (2) over __% of the body has third-degree burns (3) there are third-degree burns of the ____, ____ and feet

25, 10, face, hands

What symptom occurs first when the skin is severely damaged?

dehydration

List things that may occur when the skin is severely damaged.

metabolism accelerates or may be significantly impaired, immune system experiences significant changes, bones may soften, cardiovascular system may fail, infection (sepsis) is likely and dehydration

Which epidermal cell type is most numerous? (a) keratinocytes, (b) melanocytes, (c) Langerhans cells, (d) Merkel cells

A. keratinocytes

Which cell functions as a part of the immune system? (a) keratinocytes, (b) melanocytes, (c) Langerhans cells, (d) Merkel cells

C. Langerhan cells

The epidermis provides a physical barrier due largely to the presens of (a) melanin, (b) carotene, (c) collagen, (d) keratin

D. keratin

Skin color is determine by (a) the amount of blood, (b) pigments, (c) oxygenation level of the blood, (d) all of these

D. all of these

The sensations of touch and pressure are picked up by receptors located in (a) the stratum spinosum, (b) the dermis, (c) the hypodermis, (d) the stratum corneum

B. the dermis

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