Italian Baroque

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-These were all present at the same time, but they were different styles
-Raphael's "Madonna of the Meadows" is Italian High Ren
-Parmagianino's "Madonna of the Long Neck" is Mannerism
-Annibale Carracci's "Assumption of the the Virgin" is Italian Baroque

Italian High Renaissance, Mannerism, and Italian Baroque

-a French term given by 18th century artists to17th century art
-means over the top, excessive, strange...

Meaning of "Baroque"

1. religious images should be used in devotional practice
2. art should display Truth to common experience
3. art should inspire faith
4. art should be clearly and easily understood

counter reformation principles

1. renowned interest in naturalism and visual realism
2. light used in expressive manner
3. tends to be dynamic and theatrical
4. profound interest in human psychology
5. balancing of sacred with secular forces

chartacteristics of Baroque art

-no

is there a Baroque style/

-Most clearly linked with the renaissance
-we see this in Annibale Carracci's work

Classical Baroque

- creator: Annibale
-1597-1601
-patron: Cardinal Odoardo
-bouyn fresco
-created to celebrate a marriage
-intended for private viewing
-we see trompe lo'eil and quadro riportato

"Farnese Gallery Ceiling"

-this is the theme of the ceiling
-comes from Ovid's Metamorphoses

Love Conquers All

- idea that God can exist beyond human beliefs....slightly change Pagan beliefs to make them fit Christianity

neoplatism

-fools the eye
-the image looks like it's 2D, but the images around it look 3D even though they're 2D

trompe lo'eil

-painting placed elsewhere
-it looks like these images have been moved to the ceiling and framed, but really they're painted on there

quadro riportato

-creator: Annibale
-1597-1601
- location: South end of Farnese Gallery
-here we see positive effects of love. Divine love has the ability to save the soul

"Polyphemus Innamorato"

-creator: Annibale
-1597-1601
- location: North end of Farnese Gallery
-Polyphemus is angry that Gallatea loves someone else..it turns out this was earthly love that he had so it obviously didn't save him

"Polyphemus Furioso"

-creator: Annibale
-1597-1601
- location: Farnese Gallery Ceiling
-repaissoir
-we see a surrogate
-we see Divine love. Ariadne is being deified...he early love didn't work out

"Bacchus and Ariadne"

-one of the first Bohemian artists
-dark and troubled
-his works are sometimes scandalous
-depicts the human experience

Michelangelo Merisi do Carvaggio

-creator: Caravaggio
-1600
-he would use prostitutes and street-urchins as models

"Death of a Virgin"

-patron: Monsignor Cerasi
-this flanks Anniebele's work

"Cerasi Chapel"

-creator: Caravaggio
-1601
-patron: Monsignor Cerasi
-location: Cerasi Chapel
-a Baroque work that meets with the counter reformation principles

"Conversion of Saint Paul (Saul)"

-Caravaggio heightens drama through lighting and foreshortening. he also introduces tenebrism (an extreme form of modeling).
-there are more distracting elements in Parmaginino's
-there's a focus on humanity in Caravaggio's, but Parmaginino's seems other-worldly

Compare this work by Caravaggio with that of Parmigianino

- it's a dimly lit scene, but there's a brilliantly lit space next to the shadow.
-The light in the image symbolizes the blindness that Paul had with his lack of faith, but the illumination when he finds it

-Paul's spread arms refer to the Crucifixion (Christ's arms on the cross)

describe the lighting in Caravaggio's
other symbolism?

-creator: Caravaggio
-1601
-patron: Monsignor Cerasi
-location: Cerasi Chapel
-uses tenebrism
-sense of distress on their faces
-use of diagonals (cross, role)
-foreshortening

"Cruxifixion of Saint Peter"

-it seems distracted with all of the people in the background

How is Michelangelo's depiction of this image different from Anniebale's?

-creator: Bernini
-1623
-patron: Cardinal Borghese
-no armor, sword, or head of Golith. full grown
-he's borrowing from Michelangelo's David and Anniebele's Polyphemus
-shows action and drama
-pulls viewer into the scene

"David"

"rendering marble flexible"...he could take hard marble and make it look like soft flesh

what was Bernini interested in?

-creator: Bernini
-1645-1652
-location: Santa Maria della Vittoria
-patron: Cardinal Cornaro
-no aisle, transcept, or crossing. has a nave and apse

"Cornaro Chapel"

-where the Cardinal is buried
-celebrated the Cardinal's family
-honored St. Teresa (founded an order of nuns that lived in an abbey attached to this church)

purposes of the Chapel

-creator: Bernini
-1645-1652
-location: Cornaro Chapel
-patron: Cardinal Cornaro

-dramatic use of light
-we see the physical and spiritual movement towards God. she appears to be help up by the angel
-intensity is shown through drapery and facial expression
-link erotic with spiritual

"Saint Teresa in Ecstacy"

-they must have witnesses see that they were associated with a miraculous event
-we are the witnesses for Teresa

what must happen for someone to be cannonized (made a saint)

-creators: Bernini and Borromini
-1623-33
-location: Saint Peter's Basillica
-Patron: Pope Urban VIII
-bronze
-the columns were meant to mimic those of Solomon's temple
-the bees are an allusion to Pope Urban VIII

"Baldacchino"

-it means "St Charels of the four fountains"
-creator: Borromini
-1638-65
-patron: Trinitarian Monks

-no room for a central cross plan...uses circles, triangles, ans squares
-looks like the building is contracting...done by combining straight lines with curved lines
-dome has a cofferred ceiling

"San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane"

-creator: Borromini
-1665-76
-exterior facade
-same sense of movement. concave
-sculptures in the niches
-top is meant to mimic the bottom portion...top niches are empty bc he died before it was finished

"San Carlo alle Quattro Fontare"

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