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biology notes

Where is the dominion mandate found in the bible?

Genesis 1:27-28

What is the dominion mandate?

that man would take care of creation given that he was the only creature created in the image of God

What caused there to be complications in Man's dominion over earth?

The fall - sin entered the world

What are two complications of the dominion mandate caused by the man's sin.

1. working with the earth became more difficult - earth itself would have dominion over men and women in death.
2. after Fall, man had to deal with both creation problems and his own sinfulness.

Who did God provide to restore man to be what God intended man to be?

Jesus, the Savior

If God has given man authority over earth, can man do anything he pleases in regards to the earth?

No, man does not have the right to abuse creation. Man must make WISE AND PRUDENT decisions.

Where does man find some direction to make decisions about the earth?

Through the bible.

In scientific efforts, what should man be trying to do?

Glorify God first and then help his fellow man.

What is biotechnology?

the use of living organisms to create products or to facilitate the production of products.

What is selective breeding?

the process of crossing animals or plants to produce desirable traits.

Was selective breeding practiced in biblical times?

yes, Jacob separated feeble animals and would not let them breed with stronger animals.

What is a clone?

An exact genetic duplicate of a molecule, cell or complete organism.

What is produced when an organism reproduces by mitosis?

a clone because no new genetic material is introduced - just a copy of the original

Are clones common in nature and have clones been around for a long time?

yes

In addition to mitosis, name the other asexual reproductions that produce natural clones.

fragmentation, budding, asexual spores

What are some animals that reproduce asexually?

jellyfish, some worms and some insects.

Where are clones more common in the plant or animal kingdom?

In the plant kingdom - many plants reproduce asexually
strawberries reproduce asexually by stolons(stems that grow tiny plantlets on there ends)

What is an artificial clone?

Any clone that occurs due to man's help or interference. For example the Irish potatoe that does not naturally reproduce asexually can be forced to reproduce from the eyes creating artificial clones.

Give some examples of artificial clones.

1. "eyes" of Irish white potato are used to produce clones of potatoes.
2. Frogs-cloned from zygote stage
3. Seedless banana's produced from cuttings

What is somatic cell nuclear transfer?

the process of transplanting the genetic material from one cell into an ovum whose nucleus has been removed that is used in the process of cloning animals

Who successfully cloned the first mammal and what was it?

Ian Wilmut, Dolly the sheep was first clone of a mammal using a FULLY DIFFERENTIATED adult cell.

What is a differentiated cell?

a cell that has become specialized to preform a particular function

Before Dolly, scientists believed cloning mammals was possible using only undifferentiated cells from embryos or fetus. T/F

True

What are some drawbacks to cloning organisms?

1. If to help endangered species - it will actually reduce genetic variability making the population more suseptible to diseases or pass on genetic diseases.
2. Cloned animals for research may not provide conclusions for genetically diverse populations

How did Wilmut clone Dolly?

Removed nucleus from ovum, fused the empty ovum with a FULLY DIFFERENTIATED cell from a different sheep's udder. After fused cells began to divide, they were put in uterus of a 3rd sheep.

How many attempts did Wilmut make before he cloned Dolly?

Over 200

What other types of animals have been cloned since Dolly?

pigs, rabbits, cats, mice and cows

If frogs are reproduced through cloning, are the new frogs genetically identical?

YES, they are...remember all clones are exact genetic replicas.

Do human clones exist? Give example

YES...identical twins are NATURAL clones. Their genomes are identical. One fertilized egg divided into two cells and formed two ind. embryos.

Do you see identical triplets or quadruplets very often?

No, typically triplets or quadruplets are not identical.

What are the concerns with Human Cloning?

In order to sucessfully clone the sheep dolly 200 attempts were made with sheep embryos. For human cloning is it right for the embryos to be killed during the process of trying to clone a human. For us - no it is not acceptable.

What are the 2 categories of human cloning research

1. theraputic
2. reproductive.

Explain theraputic human cloning

It uses somatic cell nuclear transfer to create clone but the goal is to produce cells for treatment of a disease or research. These are "replacement cells" are an exact genetic match to cloned adult.

What is Reproductive Human Cloning?

A Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to create an embryo which is implanted into a woman and carried to birth. Most feel that is no different than in vitro fertilization. however the offspring is a clone and does not have genetic information from both parents

What is the difference between the embryos of reproductive human cloning and in vitro fertilization?

The child is the genetic clone of one selected individual, he would not posses DNA from both mother and father like a child from in vitro fertilization.

What is the manipulation of genes by methods other than normal reproduction?

genetic engineering

What is recombinant DNA

It is whne sections of DNA from two different sources are joined to form new DNA. Most common form of genetic engineering.

What are enyzmes that can snip DNA?

restrictive enzymes that snip DNA at certain bases

When DNA is snipped, it leaves nucleotides unpaired. What happens to the unpaired bases?

They form a sticky ends

Another DNA molecule that is snipped by the same restrictive enzyme will have a complimentary sticky end. They recombine and you have...

Recombinant DNA

Why do scientists use restrictive enzymes?

To snip genes out of the chromosomes and insert them into other chromosomes.

What carries the new gene snipped out from one organism to another.

vector

Give an example of a use of recombinant DNA.

To produce Protein insulin. People with diabetes do not make insulin (it is usually produced in the pancreas and it regulates sugar in the body.) They need insulin injections.

Before the recombinant DNA technique, where did most insulin used to treat diabetes come from?

pig or cow pancreases. Animal insulin works for most people but some people are allergic to it.

Ex. how human cells are used to produce protein insulin.

Scientists use restrictive genes to snip of insulin gene in human cells. The human insulin gene is inserted in a plasmid that has been extracted from bacteria.

What is a plasmid ?

a small circular piece of DNA similar to a chromosome.

What are plasmids used for?

The plasmid serves as the vector that carries the recombinant DNA.

How is the insulin made?

Cultures of this insulin producing bacteria containing the cloned DNA can be grown. The bacteria is killed and the insulin is collected and purified. Now you have human insulin.

Would artificial human clones have a soul?

Many Christian scholars say yes. identical twins are natural clones and they do not share a soul.

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