What are the most abundant gases in air?
Carbon dioxide (Co2) and Water vapor (H20)
What is air pressure? What is used to measure it?
AP- the force per unit area that is exerted on a surface by the weight of the atmosphere. Barometer measures air pressure.
Define Convection and how does it heat the atmosphere.
Convection- process which air rises or sinks b/c of differences in temp. Heats atmosphere by all material having heat come off of it to warm or heat atmos.
Define Conduction and how does it heat the atmosphere.
Conduction- transfer of energy as heat from one substance to another by direct contact. Heats only lowest few cm of atmo. where air comes into direct contact with the warmed surface of earth.
Contrast heating of land vs water
HOL- heats up faster, cools faster.
W- heats up slower, cools slower.
mass of water vapor in a given volume of air.
ratio of actual water vapor content of the air to the amount of water vapor needed to reach saturation.
What factors affect relative humidity?
Evaporation: increase RH
Condensation: Decreases RH
Temperature: Warmer: RH decreases
colder: RH increases.
How do clouds form?
For water vapor to condense, and form a cloud, a solid surface ib which condensation can take place must be available. (condensation nuclei)
sheet like, layered. Base is low, may touch earth's surface. Forms where layer of warm, moist air lies above a layer of cool air. covers large are of sky. blocks out sun. LITTLE precipitation
Means piled or heaped. Low altitude. Resembles cotton balls. Has a dark bottom. Fluffy.
Means curly. Feathery clouds composed of ice crystals. High altitude of any clouds.
NIBO means rain. Dark clouds. Heavy precipitation.
Forms Thunderstorms and tornadoes.
Large body of air throughout which temperature and moisture content are similar.
Describe cP. cT, mP, and mT
cP- Continental Polar cold & dry
cT- " " Tropical warm & dry
mP- Maritime polar moist & cold
mT- " " Tropical moist & warm
What is a front?
Front- when 2 unlike air masses meet, density differences usually keep air masses separate
4 types of fronts
Cold, warm, stationary, occluded
Weather happening during warm front
precipitation and violent weather
Weather happening during cold front
weaker storms and light precip. (slow current)
What two factors are used to describe climate
Temperature and Precipitation
How does Latitude affect climate?
solar energy determines the temp and wind patterns in an area which influences avg. annual temp and precip.
What is the Greenhouse Effect?
warming of a surface and lower atmosphere of earth that occurs when Co2 h20 and other gases in air absorb and readiate radiation.
What is global warming and what evidence in there?
Gradual increase in avg global temps. Evidence- global temps increase
About how old is our universe?
Around 13.7 billion years old.
Contrast refracting and reflecting telescopes.
refracting- uses set of lenses to gather & focus light from distant objects.
Reflecting - uses curved mirrors.
What advantage do space telescopes have over earth- based?
Space telescopes detects visible and nonvisible electromagnetic radiation.
Describe a Terrestrial planet
similar to inner planets. solid rock and metallic cores. impact craters.
Describe a Jovian planet
Gas Giant. Largest. gas. H and He.
Planets that cirlce stars other than our sun.
objects beyond Neptune.
beyond Neptunes orbit (TNO's located here)
Billions of comets
Enters Earth's atmosphere.
Small, rocky body that travels through space.
How did the moon form?
Giant Impact Hypothesis
Giant Impact Hypothesis formation
1. Mars sized objects collided w/ Earth and blasted part of Earths mantle into space. 2. Resulting debris began to revolve around earth. 3. Material joined- formed moon.
Name and describe Kepler's 3 laws
1. Law of Ellipses- each planet orbits the sun in a path called ellipses (not circles)
2. Law of Equal Areas- speed at which objects travel @ different points in their orbits. 3. Laws of Periods- relationship btw avg distance of a planet from the sun and the orbit period of a planet.
Main fuel source for sun? What process does sun use to burn this fuel?
Nuclei of hydrogen atoms. Nuclear Fusion.
dark area of photosphere of sun that is cooler than surrounding areas and has strong magnetic field.
Loop of cool incandescent gas. Extends above photosphere.
Sudden outward errupion of electrically charged particles such as electrons and protons.
Interaction btw solar wind and earths magnetosphere is the appearance in the sky of bands of light.
Composition of sun
H and He = 99% of sun's mass.
What is the Doppler Effect?
Change in frequency of a wave when the source or observer are moving.
light waves moving AWAY from you
light waves from star appear to have shorter wave-lenghts as star moves toward earth.
What is a light year and how long is it?
Distance light travels in a year. speed of light- 300,000 km/s. light travels 9.46 trillion km per 1 yr.
How long will average stars like our sun burn?
around 9-10 billion yrs.
What can astronomers learn from the light emitted by a star?
they find out how hot the star is by studying its spectrum.
3 different types of galaxies. What type is the Milky Way Galaxy?
Spiral, elliptical, irregular. MKW is spiral.
Describe the Big Bang Theory
Theory that all matter and energy in the universe was compressed into an extremely small volume that 13-15 bill yrs ago exploded and began expanding in all directions.