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Organic Chemistry

The study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms

Organic Compounds

Carbon-based molecules. Found in living things

Inorganic Compounds

Do not contain carbon (water, salts ect. ). Found in living things

Carbon atoms can make ____ bonds

4

Macromolecules (polymers)

Large, complex molecules built of smaller/similar molecules

Monomers

Building blocks of polymers

Dehydration Synthesis

Build polymers from monomers. One molecule of water must be removed to join to join subunits.

Hydrolisis

The breakdown of molecules with H2O

What are the 4 categories of macromolecules?

Carbohydrates, Protein, Lipids, and Nucleic Acid

Carbohydrates

Small sugars= Monosaccharides
Starch,cellulose= Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides

Monomer of a carbs
Molecular formula= C6H12O6
Function= Fuel for cellular work; short term energy. Glucose, fructose, galactose. same formula diff properties

Isomers

Molecules with same molecular formula, different structural formula

Disaccharides

2 monosaccharides.
sucrose, lactose, maltose
Chemical Formula= C12H22O11

Polysaccharides

Polymers of a monosaccharides linked together. Function: Storage molecules, Structural compounds

Lipids

Composed of C, H, and O
Diverse in function
Insoluable to water
Composite molecule rather than polymer

Hydrophobic

Fear of water

Hydrophillic

water loving

Fatty Acids

Component of triglycorides and phospholipids

Structure of Fatty Acid

Straight carbon that is hydrophobic (tail)
carboxyl group that is hydrophilic (head)
-/-/-/-/<

Triglycerides

Made of 1 glycol and 3 fatty acids
Function: Long term energy storage in animals, isolation, and protection

Saturated Triglycerides

Stacks well, solid at room temp.
All single bonds between C atoms
Bad fats

Unsaturated Triglycerides

At least 1 double bond between a pair of C atoms
Bent shape
Dont stack well
Liquid at room temp
"good fats"

Phospholipids

2 fatty acid tails and a phosphate group attach to the glycerol molecule

Steroids

Composed of 4 fused rings. No fatty acids.
Cholesterol for cell membrane

Waxes

Structure: Fatty acid chain+ alchol chain
Function: Protective coating/ water proofing

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