Microbiology Topic 1

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Flashcards for Test 1

How did people used to view diseases?

-Saw them as supernatural
-Saw diseases as punishment for sins by Gods

A lot of the early history of microbiology was under the influence of what?

The social and theological beliefs of the times.

Why did people start to believe that there was more to microbiology than divine origin?

Because beliefs in "living agents" as the cause of disease slowly started growing.

Who is Fracastoro?

In 1546, he knew that there were agents out there.

What did Fracastoro believe?

He believed that there were things on clothing (etc.) that could cause disease.

What are inanimate objects?

Objects with no life.

What is the definition of microscopy?

The discovery of the very small.

Who is Robert Hooke?

-He published Micrographia in 1665.
-He studied the very small through ground lenses.
-He only saw quarts in the lenses.

Who truly began microbiology?

Anton von Leeuwenhoek

What are some examples of things Leeuwenhoek tried to look at microscopically?

Feces, lake water, etc.

When Leeuwenhoek began to study certain objects, what did he begin to see?

Animalcules

What are animalcules?

Rods, spheres, basically our bacteria.

Leeuwenhoek didn't know that these animalcules caused disease, but what did he conclude?

That there were things in the world that he had never seen, an "invisible world of microorganisms."

What does the Germ Theory of Disease refer to?

Belief in living agents as the cause of disease.

6 Divisions of Microbiology?

Bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology, protozoology, and phycology

When disease was seen as "supernatural," what did people do for treatment and prevention?

Sacrifices to appease the anger of the Gods

Because men were sinful at nature, epidemics were _______.

Justified

Some people refer to the belief in living agents as?

The Germ Theory of Disease

What was the title of Fracastoro's book?

Contagion, Contagious Disease and Treatment

In Fracastoro's book what did his theory state?

That living agents, or "contagium vivum" caused disease

In Fracastoro's book, what three things did he say disease was transmitted by?

Direct contact, formites (inanimate objects), and air

What was Anton von Leeuwenhoek skilled in?

Grinding lenses

Where did Leeuwenhoek first find and describe animalcules?

In a specimen of lake water

What is another name for spontaneous generation?

Abiogenesis

What is another name for abiogenesis?

Spontaneous generation

What is spontaneous generation?

The notion that life can spontaneously arise from non-living sources

What is Abiogenesis?

The notion that life can spontaneously arise from non-living sources

What are 2 examples of a non-living source?

Meat producing maggots, old clothes producing moths

What is the opposite of abiogenesis?

Biogenesis

What is the definition of biogenesis?

Life from pre-existing life

What is the purpose of epidemiology?

understanding disease transmission

What is the definition of epidemiology?

The study of the source, cause, and mode of transmission of disease

Ignaz Semmelweis determined the ______.

Source of blood poisoning of women in childbirth

What was Semmelweis' key to preventing blood poisoning of women in childbirth?

Hand washing with chlorine water.

What did surgeon John Snow determine?

The transmission of cholera in London

What did variolation involve?

Exposing individuals to dried smallpox specimens

Edward Jenner:

He developed a vaccination that inoculated individuals with cowpox in order to heal those with smallpox

What did Louis Pasteur propose?

That germs cause infection diseases

What did Louis Pasteur prove in regard to fermentation?

That yeasts were responsible for fermentation and bacteria soured wine

What is Pasteurization?

Pasteur's technique of heating in order to kill pathogens

What did Pasteur propose in 1862?

The Germ Theory

What did Pasteur's work lead to?

Disease control

What did Pasteur's work reinforce?

Disease causation

What did Joseph Lister develop?

The practice of antisepsis

What is the definition of antisepsis?

The chemical disinfection of external living surfaces

What are two specific things that Pasteur investigated?

The cause of cholera and the silkworm disease

Robert Koch formalized standards to do what?

Identify germs with infectious diseases

Koch's postulates became standards for what?

Linking a specific organism to a specific disease

What was Koch's technique for developing pure cultures?

Adding gelatin to his broth

What was Koch able to accomplish by adding gelatin to his broth?

Grow bacterial colonies in a petri dish

Postulate 1 states:

The same microorganisms are present in every case of the disease

Postulate 2 states:

The microorganisms are isolated from the tissues of a dead animal, and a pure culture is prepared

Postulate 3 states:

Microorganisms from a pure culture are inoculated into a healthy, susceptible animal. The disease is reproduced.

Postulate 4 states:

The identical microorganisms are isolated and recultivated from the tissue specimens of the experimental animal.

What did Pasteur's lab focus on?

Infection and immunity

What did Koch's lab focus on?

Isolation, culture, and identification

In Pasteur's lab, anthrax and cholera temperature sensitivity did what?

It lead to principles of vaccination

What kind of vaccine did Pasteur succesfully develop?

A rabies vaccine

What three things did Koch isolate?

Tubercule, typhoid, and diphtheria bacilli

Koch isolated the _____ _____ and determined that ______ is the key to _____ _____.

Tubercule bacillus; water; tuberculosis transmission

Who put bacteriology on the map?

Pasteur, Koch, and their colleagues

Why study microorganisms and viruses today?

1. There is still much to learn and understand.
2. It is an opportunity to study processes common to all life.
3. Microorganisms are important to disease, but also in environmental processes

How many species of prokaryotes are there?

Over 10 million

What shapes do prokaryotes appear in?

Spherical, spiral, or rod-shaped

How many domains of prokaryotes are there?

Two

What are the two domains of prokaryotes?

Bacteria and archaea

How many known viruses are there?

Over 3600

What are viruses NOT?

Microbes or cells

What do viruses have?

A DNA or RNA core surrounded by a protein coat

What can viruses not replicate without?

The replication machinery in a host cell

How many described species of fungi are there?

Over 70,000

Where do most fungi live?

In their food medium

What can fungi cause?

Human disease or can serve as useful antibiotics

Single cell protozoa and algae are ______, some of which are ____ ____, and some of which live ______ with other _______.

Protista, free-living, symbiotically, organisms

What can some protozoa cause?

Disease in humans

The Second Golden Age of Microbiology was when?

1943-1970

What does molecular biology rely on?

Microorganisms

What does molecular biology use as a model system?

E-coli (bacteria)

Who discovered that bacteria can mutate to generate resistance to viral infection?

Salvador Luria and Max Dulbruck

What did Salvador Luria and Max Dulbruck discover?

That bacteria can mutate to generate resistance to viral infection

Early work on DNA as the genetic material was done by what 5 people?

Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, Maclyn McCarty, Alfred Hershey, and Martha Chase

In 1910, Paul Elrich developed what?

Salvarsan

What is Salvarsan?

A chemical that cured individuals of syphilis

In 1929, Alexander Fleming observed what?

That a species of penicillium mold killed bacterial cells

Who discovered that penicillium mold killed bacterial cells?

Alexander Fleming

What did the discovery of the penicillium mold lead to?

The development of penicillin

Bacterial species can become _____ to _____.

Resistant, antibiotics

Infectious disease kill how many people globally each year?

About 15 million

A pathogen can cause more than ____ ____, and a disease can be caused by more than ____ ____.

one disease, one microbe

What are polymicrobial diseases?

Diseases that are caused by more than one microbe

How can pathogens be used intentionally?

To infect large numbers of people through bioterrorism

What can be used intentionally to infect large numbers of people through bioterrorism?

Pathogens

The most important invention to begin to understand microorganisms was what?

The microscope

What did Louis Pasteur disprove?

Spontaneous generation

What did Louis Pasteur's experiment conclude?

That unseen organisms could cause disease

What is cholera?

a gastrointestinal disease from contaminated water

What are symptoms of cholera?

It causes you to lose massive amounts of water in short amounts of time

John Snow demonstrated the first act of what?

Public health

How did John Snow demonstrate the first act of public health?

He stopped cholera from transmitting

How many children died from smallpox?

1 in every 3 before the age of 3

What did Louis Pasteur say about fermentation?

That if wine, beer, bread, etc were not heated properly, these organisms could grow bacteria in wine

What did Pasteur realize about fermentation?

That mild heating of liquids would reduce the population/majority of organisms that would cause things to sour

Jospeh Lister found that what prevented disease during surgery?

Spraying carbolic acid on wounds

Koch lab big picture

one organism to one disease; specific organisms can cause a specific disease

What was Koch's conclusion in his lab?

Germs cause disease, but one specific germ causes one specific disease

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