How did people used to view diseases?
-Saw them as supernatural
-Saw diseases as punishment for sins by Gods
A lot of the early history of microbiology was under the influence of what?
The social and theological beliefs of the times.
Why did people start to believe that there was more to microbiology than divine origin?
Because beliefs in "living agents" as the cause of disease slowly started growing.
Who is Fracastoro?
In 1546, he knew that there were agents out there.
What did Fracastoro believe?
He believed that there were things on clothing (etc.) that could cause disease.
What are inanimate objects?
Objects with no life.
What is the definition of microscopy?
The discovery of the very small.
Who is Robert Hooke?
-He published Micrographia in 1665.
-He studied the very small through ground lenses.
-He only saw quarts in the lenses.
Who truly began microbiology?
Anton von Leeuwenhoek
What are some examples of things Leeuwenhoek tried to look at microscopically?
Feces, lake water, etc.
When Leeuwenhoek began to study certain objects, what did he begin to see?
What are animalcules?
Rods, spheres, basically our bacteria.
Leeuwenhoek didn't know that these animalcules caused disease, but what did he conclude?
That there were things in the world that he had never seen, an "invisible world of microorganisms."
What does the Germ Theory of Disease refer to?
Belief in living agents as the cause of disease.
6 Divisions of Microbiology?
Bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology, protozoology, and phycology
When disease was seen as "supernatural," what did people do for treatment and prevention?
Sacrifices to appease the anger of the Gods
Because men were sinful at nature, epidemics were _______.
Some people refer to the belief in living agents as?
The Germ Theory of Disease
What was the title of Fracastoro's book?
Contagion, Contagious Disease and Treatment
In Fracastoro's book what did his theory state?
That living agents, or "contagium vivum" caused disease
In Fracastoro's book, what three things did he say disease was transmitted by?
Direct contact, formites (inanimate objects), and air
What was Anton von Leeuwenhoek skilled in?
Where did Leeuwenhoek first find and describe animalcules?
In a specimen of lake water
What is another name for spontaneous generation?
What is another name for abiogenesis?
What is spontaneous generation?
The notion that life can spontaneously arise from non-living sources
What is Abiogenesis?
The notion that life can spontaneously arise from non-living sources
What are 2 examples of a non-living source?
Meat producing maggots, old clothes producing moths
What is the opposite of abiogenesis?
What is the definition of biogenesis?
Life from pre-existing life
What is the purpose of epidemiology?
understanding disease transmission
What is the definition of epidemiology?
The study of the source, cause, and mode of transmission of disease
Ignaz Semmelweis determined the ______.
Source of blood poisoning of women in childbirth
What was Semmelweis' key to preventing blood poisoning of women in childbirth?
Hand washing with chlorine water.
What did surgeon John Snow determine?
The transmission of cholera in London
What did variolation involve?
Exposing individuals to dried smallpox specimens
He developed a vaccination that inoculated individuals with cowpox in order to heal those with smallpox
What did Louis Pasteur propose?
That germs cause infection diseases
What did Louis Pasteur prove in regard to fermentation?
That yeasts were responsible for fermentation and bacteria soured wine
What is Pasteurization?
Pasteur's technique of heating in order to kill pathogens
What did Pasteur propose in 1862?
The Germ Theory
What did Pasteur's work lead to?
What did Pasteur's work reinforce?
What did Joseph Lister develop?
The practice of antisepsis
What is the definition of antisepsis?
The chemical disinfection of external living surfaces
What are two specific things that Pasteur investigated?
The cause of cholera and the silkworm disease
Robert Koch formalized standards to do what?
Identify germs with infectious diseases
Koch's postulates became standards for what?
Linking a specific organism to a specific disease
What was Koch's technique for developing pure cultures?
Adding gelatin to his broth
What was Koch able to accomplish by adding gelatin to his broth?
Grow bacterial colonies in a petri dish
Postulate 1 states:
The same microorganisms are present in every case of the disease
Postulate 2 states:
The microorganisms are isolated from the tissues of a dead animal, and a pure culture is prepared
Postulate 3 states:
Microorganisms from a pure culture are inoculated into a healthy, susceptible animal. The disease is reproduced.
Postulate 4 states:
The identical microorganisms are isolated and recultivated from the tissue specimens of the experimental animal.
What did Pasteur's lab focus on?
Infection and immunity
What did Koch's lab focus on?
Isolation, culture, and identification
In Pasteur's lab, anthrax and cholera temperature sensitivity did what?
It lead to principles of vaccination
What kind of vaccine did Pasteur succesfully develop?
A rabies vaccine
What three things did Koch isolate?
Tubercule, typhoid, and diphtheria bacilli
Koch isolated the _____ _____ and determined that ______ is the key to _____ _____.
Tubercule bacillus; water; tuberculosis transmission
Who put bacteriology on the map?
Pasteur, Koch, and their colleagues
Why study microorganisms and viruses today?
1. There is still much to learn and understand.
2. It is an opportunity to study processes common to all life.
3. Microorganisms are important to disease, but also in environmental processes
How many species of prokaryotes are there?
Over 10 million
What shapes do prokaryotes appear in?
Spherical, spiral, or rod-shaped
How many domains of prokaryotes are there?
What are the two domains of prokaryotes?
Bacteria and archaea
How many known viruses are there?
What are viruses NOT?
Microbes or cells
What do viruses have?
A DNA or RNA core surrounded by a protein coat
What can viruses not replicate without?
The replication machinery in a host cell
How many described species of fungi are there?
Where do most fungi live?
In their food medium
What can fungi cause?
Human disease or can serve as useful antibiotics
Single cell protozoa and algae are ______, some of which are ____ ____, and some of which live ______ with other _______.
Protista, free-living, symbiotically, organisms
What can some protozoa cause?
Disease in humans
The Second Golden Age of Microbiology was when?
What does molecular biology rely on?
What does molecular biology use as a model system?
Who discovered that bacteria can mutate to generate resistance to viral infection?
Salvador Luria and Max Dulbruck
What did Salvador Luria and Max Dulbruck discover?
That bacteria can mutate to generate resistance to viral infection
Early work on DNA as the genetic material was done by what 5 people?
Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, Maclyn McCarty, Alfred Hershey, and Martha Chase
In 1910, Paul Elrich developed what?
What is Salvarsan?
A chemical that cured individuals of syphilis
In 1929, Alexander Fleming observed what?
That a species of penicillium mold killed bacterial cells
Who discovered that penicillium mold killed bacterial cells?
What did the discovery of the penicillium mold lead to?
The development of penicillin
Bacterial species can become _____ to _____.
Infectious disease kill how many people globally each year?
About 15 million
A pathogen can cause more than ____ ____, and a disease can be caused by more than ____ ____.
one disease, one microbe
What are polymicrobial diseases?
Diseases that are caused by more than one microbe
How can pathogens be used intentionally?
To infect large numbers of people through bioterrorism
What can be used intentionally to infect large numbers of people through bioterrorism?
The most important invention to begin to understand microorganisms was what?
What did Louis Pasteur disprove?
What did Louis Pasteur's experiment conclude?
That unseen organisms could cause disease
What is cholera?
a gastrointestinal disease from contaminated water
What are symptoms of cholera?
It causes you to lose massive amounts of water in short amounts of time
John Snow demonstrated the first act of what?
How did John Snow demonstrate the first act of public health?
He stopped cholera from transmitting
How many children died from smallpox?
1 in every 3 before the age of 3
What did Louis Pasteur say about fermentation?
That if wine, beer, bread, etc were not heated properly, these organisms could grow bacteria in wine
What did Pasteur realize about fermentation?
That mild heating of liquids would reduce the population/majority of organisms that would cause things to sour
Jospeh Lister found that what prevented disease during surgery?
Spraying carbolic acid on wounds
Koch lab big picture
one organism to one disease; specific organisms can cause a specific disease
What was Koch's conclusion in his lab?
Germs cause disease, but one specific germ causes one specific disease