term applied to anything totally independent of influences, limitations, controls, or modifiers.
a story in which the people, places, and things represent general, concepts or moral qualities.
the repetition of initial identical consonant sounds or any vowel sounds in successive or closely associated syllables, especially stressed syllables.
a figure of speech that makes brief reference to a historical or literary figure, event or object.
a situation expressed in such a way as to admit more than one possible interpretation.
a comparison between two things in which the more complex is explained in terms of the more simple.
rhetorical figure of repetition in which the same word or phrase is repeated (usually at the beginning of) successive line, clauses, or sentences.
a short entertaining account of some happening, frequently personal or biographical.
a sudden drop from the dignified or important in thought or expression to the commonplace or trivial, often for humorous effect.
a terse (abrupt, short) statement of known authorship, which expresses a general truth or a moral principle.
exploration of a problem by investigating all sides of it; persuasion through reason.
similar to tone, the writer expresses his personal feelings toward the subject, characters, or audience.
when the clauses are parallel or match in grammatical structure.
cause and effect
examination of the causes and/or effects of a situation or phenomenon.
a pattern in which the second part is balanced against the first but with the parts reversed.
arrangement in the order in which things occur.
Classification as a means of Ordering
arrangement of objects according to class.
words and phrases used in everday speech but avoided in formal writing.
Cumulative Sentence (loose)
sentences begin with the subject and predicate plus their modifiers and then add more modifiers.
Damning with faint praise
intentional use of a positive statement that has a negative implication.
a form of reasoning that begins with a generalization, then applies the generalization to a specific case or cases; opposite to induction
the clearing up or "untying" of the complications of the plot in a play or story; usually a final scene or chapter in which mysteries, confusions, and doubtful destinies are clarified. SHERLOCK HOLMES!!!!!
the use of ______ includes describing or relating an object or scene with complex particulars. Though details very specific information clarifies and makes a more complete picture in the novel.
the figures of speech, syntax, diction, and other stylistic elements that collectively produce a particular artistic effect.
a ______ is the form of a language spoken by people in a particular region or group.
writer's or speaker's particular word choice used to make a point in the story.
a temporary departure from the main subject in speaking or writing
1. In grammar, the omission of a word or words necessary for complete construction but understood in context. 2. the sign (...) that something has been left out of a quotation.
a sudden revelation or insight of the true nature of a character or situation through a specific event.
a rhetorical figure by which the same word or phrases is repeated at the end of successive clauses, sentences, or lines.
the use of a word or phrase that is less direct, but that also less distasteful or less offensive than another.
an error in reasoning
begging the question fallacy
occurs when one assumes the truth of the statement to be proved without providing any supporting evidence.
Circular reasoning fallacy
occurs when evidence is given to support a claim is simply a restatement of the claim.
occurs when someone claims that there are only two alternatives when there are actually more.
false analogy fallacy
occurs when one falsely assumes that two subjects are similar in respect just because they are similar in some other respect.
occurs when someone makes a statement that is too broad or too inclusive.
Post hoc, ergo propter hoc (After this, therefore because of this)
occurs when someon falsely assumes that an event is caused by another even simply because of the order of events in time.
logical argument that is committed when too few of the available alternatives are considered, and all but one are assessed and deemed impossible or unacceptable.
an inentional departure from the normal order or meaning of words.
an element of style that indicates an intention opposite of what is actually stated.
a figure of speech in which what is said is the opposite of what is meant.
a situation in which there is a incongruity between the actual situation and what would seem appropriate.
an incongruity or discrepancy between what a character says or thinks and what the reader knows to be true.
a poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, colors, shapes, or phrases are placed next to one another, creating an effect of surprise and wit.
manner of expression to communicate feeling, tone, or attitude.
figure of speech that replaces the name of one thing with the name of something closely associated with it.
the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of work.
a simple element that serves as a basis for expanded narrative; or, less strictly, a conventional situation, device interest, or interest.
a figure of speech in which one thing is compared to another by being spoken of as though it were that thing.
the manner in which the author tells the story.
prose writing that presents and explains ideas or that tells about real people, places, objects or events.
similar to fallacy. A Statement that does not follow logically from anything previously said.
the order in which events take place.
the physical description of persons and places.
figure of speech in which contradictory terms or ideas are combined.
Parallel syntactic structures
using the same part of speech or syntactic structure.
the repetition of grammatical structure.
a statement that seems self-contradictory, but which may be true in fact.
the quality in a work that evokes sorry or pity.
a display of narrow-minded and trivial scholarship or arbitrary adherence to rules and forms.
Periodic Sentence Structure
a long sentence in which the completion of syntax and sense is delayed until the end, usually after a sequence of balanced subordinate clauses.
a figure of speech in which an inanimate object or abstract concept is endowed with human attributes.
when asked to analyze an author's persuasive devices, look for the words in the passage that have strong connotations, words that intensify the emotional effect.
the fictional mask or voice an author may adopt to tell a story.
taking a single position for the purpose of getting others to accept that position; may appeal to emotion or reason.
a phrase serves as a single part of speech in a sentence.
Point of View
the angle of vision from which the story is told.
The author tells the story, using the third person, knowing all and free to tell us anything.
the story is told by one of its characters, using the first person.
the narrator may be omniscient, and therefore show an unrestricted knowledge of the story's events from the outside or "above" them.
The author tells the story, using the third person, but is limited to a complete knowledge of one charater in the story and tells us only what the one character thinks, feels, sees, or hears.
Multiple point of view
Modern authors have also used this point of view in which we are shown the events from the positions of two or more different characters.
one of the major divisions of genre, _____ refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all its forms.
the goal or aim of a literary work.
Resources of language
refers to all the devices of composition available to a writer.