Adverse Reactions

24 terms by cwielan 

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Penicillins

ALLERGIC REACTIONS (anaphylaxis, urticaria, drug fever)
GI (NVD, Pseudomembranous colitits, C. difficile
HEMATOLOGIC
NEUROLOGIC (seizures at high doses)

Cephalosporins

ALLERGIC REACTIONS (anaphylaxis, urticaria, drug fever)
GI (NVD, Pseudomembranous colitis)
HEMATOLOGIC
NEUROLOGIC
DISULFIRAM-LIKE REACTION (methylthiotetrazole side chain)

Carbapenems

Infusion site problems
Nausea and vomiting (imipenem infusion)
Diarrhe: high risk of C. difficile due to broad spectrum
ALLERGIC REACTIONS - cross reaction with penicillins higher than cephalosporins
SEIZURES with Imipenem

Monobactam (Aztreonam)

Injection site reactions
rash
NVD
WEAKLY IMMUNOGENIC

Aminoglycosides

MAJOR
- Nephrotoxicity, Ototoxicity, & Neuromuscular Blockade
Minor
- drug fever, rash

Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole

HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS (fever & rash)
Renal
- CAN CRYSTALLIZE AND CAUSE STONES IF NOT HYDRATED
Hematologic
- BONE MARROW SUPPRESSION COMMON AT HIGH DOSES

Tetracyclines

PHOTOSENSITIVITY
DISCOLORATION OF DEVELOPING TEETH
hepatotoxicity
ESOPHAGEAL ULCERATION
GI upset
Skin discoloration

Tigecycline

NAUSEA AND VOMITING (20-30%)
diarrhea
Cross reactivity with tetracyclines

Macrolides

NOTABLE NAUSEA
abdominal pain, metallic taste, headache, and transient hearing loss

Quinolones

GI, CNS effects, Hepatic, Photosensitivy, Tendonitis
QT interval prolongation (CAUTION WITH OTHER MEDS THAT PROLONG QT)

Clindamycin

DIARRHEA
C. difficile colitis
GI UPSET
rare hypersensitivity reactions

Metronidazole

CNS EFFECTS
GI UPSET
METALLIC TASTE
Dark urine
DISULFIRAM-LIKE REACTION

Chloramphenicol

APLASTIC ANEMIA (irreversible)
BONE MARROW SUPPRESSION(reversible)
GRAY BABY SYNDROME (primarily neonates)
CNS effects, GI symptoms, CYP-450 inhibition

Vancomycin

NEPHROTOXICITY
Ototoxicity
DRUG FEVER
INFUSION-RELATED SIDE EFFECTS (redman syndrome & hypotension)
Thrombophlebitis
Hypersensitivy reactions
Neutropenia/bone marrow suppression

Quinupristin/Dalfopristin

INFLAMMATION AT INFUSION SITE
ARTHRALGIA/MYALGIA Not compatible with saline
Hepatotoxicity, GI upset, Rash/itching, Inhibits CYP450 3A4

Linezolid

THROMBOCYTOPENIA(usually after 2 weeks)
diarrhea, headache, nausea, lactic acidosis, perpheral & optic neuropathies

Daptomycin

MYOPATHY, monitor CPK weakly
nausea, diarrhea, comiting, and constipation

Oseltamivir

Nausea, abdominal discomfort, vomiting
Headache
No significant drug interactions

Zanamivir

Breezing and bronchospasm
- not recommended for treatment of patients with underlying airway disease
No drug interactions reported

Amantadine

CNS: minor and resolve despite continuation of therapy (More severe in patients with decreased renal function)
Tremors/Parkinsonian patients
depression, orthostatic hypotension, psychosis, urinary retention, and CHF
GI: nausea, diarrhea, constipation, anorexia

Isoniazid

Peripheral neuritis, CNS side effects
Hepatotoxicity
Allergic reactions
Drug interaction w/ alcohol and aluminum-containing antacids

Rifampin

MAY GIVE A RED-ORANGE COLOR TO URINE, FECES, SALIVA, SWEAT, and TEARS
headache, drowsiness, ataxia, dizziness, fatigue
Anorexia, nausea, mild abdominal comfort, diarrhea
Hepatitis (especially in alcoholics)

Ethambutol

Occasionally mild GI upset, abdominal pain, allergic reactions
Retrobulbar neuritis (dose related)
Peripheral neuropathy

Pyrazinamide

Flushing
Mild nausea and anorexia
Renal failure - hyperuricemia
Liver injury
Arthralgia

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