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compact bone

stripe or band in muscle tissue

skeletal muscle

striations or stripe but voluntary; called muscle fibers because they overlap

cardiac muscle

muscl that is striated but involuntary; uses more ATP and has more mitochondria than any other muscle; each cell has one nucleus

smooth muscle

muscle surrounds blood vessels and digestive organs; involuntary; found in the walls of the stomach, intestines, blood vessels, and other internal organs

vitamin D

synthesized by skin when in sun, vitamin

cartilage

protein fiber matrix in which calcium and phosphorus are deposited

actin

thin filaments of muscle; contains a protein

myosin

thick filaments of muscle; contains a protein

muscle contractions

occurs when a thin actin filament slides past a thick myosin filament

ATP

source of energy

crossbridges

needs ATP as an energy source and calcium

calcium

mineral needed for muscle contraction; this covers the active site to prevent contractions from occuring

acetylcholine

a synapse and neurotransmitter that is released from vesicles in the axon terminal and diffuses across the synapse to stimulate the muscle cell

tendon

tissue that connects MUSCLE TO BONE

ligaments

tissue that connects BONE TO BONE

dermis

layer containing nerve endings, capillaries, sweat glands, and hair follicles

melanin

pigment that produces brown skin coloring

keratin

hair and nails are made of this tough fiberous protein

epidermis

outermost laer of skin; composed of mainly dead cells

sebaceous glands

gland making waxy or oily material used for waterproofing and keeping epidermis flexible; aka oil glands

hair follicles

tube like pockets of epidermal cells that make hair cells and external keratin

sweat glands

gland producing substances released for export to the outside environment

perspiration

aka swear; contains mostly water and salts, a few other chemical compunds

cellular respiration

produces to substances as products-carbon dioxide and water

calories

the ammount of heat energy given off is mesured and expressed by this term

protein

antibodies and hemoglobin are made of this; supplies raw material for growth, muscle, bones, skin, hair, finger nais, antibodies and hemoglobin; its shape is determined by temperature and solvent its dissolved in

carbs

main source of energy for humans; sucrose and starch are examples

fats (lipids)

used for making cell membranes, steroid hormones, and to store energy; do not dissolve in water

saturated fats

solid at room temperature; each carbon atom is attached to 4 other atoms

unsaturated fats

contains atleast one or more double bonds between carbon atoms

legumes

peanuts beans and seeds

essential amino acids

found in a combination of legumes and grains; builiding blocks of proteins

enzymes

contains hundreds of amino acids, a protein or RNA that speeds up the matabolic reactions without being permanently change or destroyed

active site

part of the enzyme where the substrate attaches during a chemical reaction

salivary glands

digests carbs into sugar

esophagus

peristalsis moves food through this

stomach

where both chemical and mechanical digestion occurs and expands more than twice its regular size

ulcers

a hole in your stomach; bacteria stress, taking medication without water

sphincters

round circular muscle that closes off parts of the digestive system

chyme

a mixture of food and gastric fluids

small intestine

where most chemical digestion takes place ; responsible for deotoxifying alcohol and other poisonous substance; most nutrients are absorbed in villi here

duodenum

first 10-12 inches of small intestine; a large number of enzymes dump into this area from the liver and pancreas

villi

fingerlike projections which increase the surface area to absorb nutrients to be put into the blood stream

pancreas

produces digestive enzymes and insulin

liver

produces bile and stores glycogen

large intestine

aka colon, reabsorbs water

peristalsis

contractions of muscles pushing food through the digestive system

sodium bicarbonate

neutralizes acid in small intestine

insulin

hormone which regulates sugar levels; lack of this can cause coma, high blood sugar, diabetes

glycogen and glucose

stored in the liver; regulates blood sugar

loop of henle

tubule to capillary

ureter

1 ft long tube that leads from each kidney to the bladder

bladder

flexible sack for storing urine

endocrine glands

makes a substance that stays in the body; estrogen, insulin

exocrine glands

produces a substance that leaves the body; bile sweat, tears

steroid hormone

hormone triggering DNA transcript

non-steroid hormone

hormone that is not cholesterol based

progesterone

primary hormone taht stimulates lining of uterus to thicken

photosynthesis

building with light; making sugar with light, has two parts: light and dark reaction

pigment

compunds that absorb light

chlorophyll

absorbs orange, red violet and blue light

monocots

has parallel veins in leaves, random cross section of water canals in veins. 3,6,9 grouped petals, branching roots; a plant with out vascular tisue

dicots

has branching veins in leaves, organized water canals in veins, 4 or 5 grouped petals; taped roots, vascular tubes

haploid

one set of chromosomes

diploid

produced by mitosis, 2 sets of chromosomes

gamete

different forms of the parent cell, another name for a haploid cell

meiosis

reduces chromosome number in gametes; results in the formation of 4 gametes and reduces the number of chromosomes

mitosis

produces equal daughter cells;results in 2 new cells that are identical to the original cell

chromosome

made up of condensed DNA

chromatin

long threadlike DNA; uncoiled DNA complex

centromere

chromosomes are attached to eachother here; where chromatids join to each other and spindle fibers attach

centriole

spindle fibers attach one end here

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