the idea that political authority belongs to the people
(1846) a proposal to outlaw slavery in the territory added to the United States by the Mexican Cession; passed in the House of Representatives but was defeated in the Senate
a devotion to the interests of one geographic region over the interests of the country as a whole
a political party formed in 1848 by antislavery northerners who left the Whig and Democratic parties because neither addressed the slavery issue
To formally withdraw form the Union
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay's proposed agreement that allowed California to enter the Union as a free state and divided the rest of the Mexican Cession into two territories where slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty
Fugitive Slave Act
(1850) a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
American enslaved African, he ran away and was arrested in Boston. His arrest became the center of violent protests by northern opponents of the Fugitive Slave Act.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
(1852) an antislavery novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe that showed northerners the violent reality of slavery and drew many people to the abolitionists cause
Harriet Beecher Stowe
(1811-1896) American author and daughter of Lyman Beecher, she was an abolitionist and author of the famous antislavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin
(1804-1869) Democratic candidate for president in 1852 and the fourteenth president of the United States, he made the Gadsden Purchase, which opened the Northwest for settlement, and passed the unpopular Kansas-Nebraska Act.
(1813-1861) American politician and pro-slavery nominee for president, he debated Abraham Lincoln about slavery during the Illinois senatorial race. He proposed the unpopular Kansas-Nebraska Act, and he established the Freeport Doctrine, upholding the idea of popular sovereignty.
(1854) a plan that would divide the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska, and allowed voters in Kansas and Nebraska to choose whether to allow slavery
(1856) an incident in which abolitionist John Brown and seven other men murdered pro-slavery Kansans
Senator from Massachusetts, he was attacked by Preston Brooks with a cane over the issue of slavery
(1819-1857) American congressman, he assaulted and beat Senator Charles Sumner for his antislavery speeches and for insulting a pro-slavery relative. He was nicknamed Bully Brooks by northerners.
a political party formed in the 1850s to stop the spread of slavery in the West
(1791-1868) American politician and fifteenth president of the United States, he was chosen as the Democratic nominee for president in 1854 for being politically experienced and not offensive to slave states.
John C. Fremont
(1813-1890) American explorer, army officer, and politician, he was chosen as the first Republican candidate for president. He was against the spread of slavery, and he was rejected by all but the free states as a ^single issue^ candidate in the election of 1856.
(1857) a slave whose courtcase led to a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that declared African Americans were not U.S. citizens, that the Missouri Compromise's restriction on slavery was unconstitutional, and that Congress did not have the right to ban slavery in any federal territory
Roger B. Taney
(TAW-nee) (1777-1864) U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice he wrote the majority opinion in the Dred Scott decision, stating that African Americans were not citizens and that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
1809-1865) Sixteenth president of the United States, he promoted equal rights for African Americans in the famed Lincoln- Douglas debates. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation and set in motion the Civil War, but he was determined to preserve the Union. He was assassinated in 1865.
a series of debates between Republican Abraham Lincoln and Democrat Stephen Douglas during the 1858 U.S. Senate campaign in Illinois
(1858) a statement made by Stephen Douglas during the Lincoln-Douglas debates that pointed out how people could use popular sovereignty to determine if their state or territory should permit slavery
John Brown's Raid
(1859) An incident in which abolitionist John Brown and 21 other men captured a federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in hope of starting a slave rebellion
John C Breckenridge
(1821-1875) Vice President under James Buchanan, he was also a senator from Kentucky. He later served a a general in the Confederate Army.
Constitutional Union Party
a political party formed in 1860 by a group of northerners and southerners who supported the Union, its laws, and the Constitution
(1797-1869) Senator from Tennessee, he supported the Union over slavery and helped found the Constitutional Union Party
John J. Crittenden
(1787-1863) Kentucky senator, he attempted to save the Union by reconciling differences between northern and southern states in the Senate proposal known as Crittenden's Compromise.
Confederate States of America
the nation formed by the southern states when they seceded from the Union; also known as the Confederacy, South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, Louisiana
(1808-1889) First and only president of the Confederate States of America after the election of President Abraham Lincoln in 1860 led to the secession of many southern states.