1. a Action therapy emphasizes changing behavior, whereas insight therapy emphasizes understanding one's motives and actions.
1. Therapies directed at changing disordered behavior are referred to as __________. | a) action therapies | b) insight therapies | c) biomedical therapies | d) relationship therapies |
2. a Any medical treatment that is directed at changing the physiological functioning of an individual is classified as a biomedical therapy. All of the remaining choices are examples of types of psychotherapy treatments.
2. Which of the following is the best example of biomedical therapy? | a) use of antidepressants to treat depression | b) use of insight therapy for social phobia | c) psychoanalysis to help treat an anxiety disorder | d) flooding treatment for an individual with obsessive-compulsive disorder |
3. c In 1793 Philippe Pinel unchained the mentally ill inmates at an asylum in Paris, France, and began the movement of humane treatment for the mentally ill.
3. Approximately how long ago were the first efforts made to treat the mentally ill with kindness, rather than subjecting them to harsh physical treatment? | a) 20 years ago | b) 100 years ago | c) 200 years ago | d) 500 years ago |
4. d Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis, while Rogers developed person-centered therapy.
4. Psychoanalysis was a therapy technique designed by | a) Alfred Adler. | b) Carl Rogers. | c) Fritz Perls. | d) Sigmund Freud. |
5. d Resistance occurred when a patient became unwilling to discuss a concept. In transference the patient would transfer positive and negative feelings for an authority figure in their past onto the therapist.
5. Freud believed one of the indications that he was close to discovering an unconscious conflict was when a patient became unwilling to talk about a topic. He referred to this response in the patient as | a) transference. | b) latent content. | c) dream analysis. | d) resistance. |
6. b People with severe psychotic disorders are less likely to benefit from psychoanalysis than are people who suffer from somatoform or anxiety disorders.
6. Which of the following individuals would be least likely to benefit from psychoanalysis? | a) Mary, who has a somatoform disorder | b) Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder | c) Pasha, who has panic attacks | d) Lou, who suffers from anxiety |
7. b A directive approach involves asking questions and suggesting behaviors. The more traditional psychoanalyst typically takes a more nondirective approach in which the therapist remains neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client.
7. The modern psychoanalyst provides more guidance to the patient, asks questions, suggests helpful behaviors, and gives opinions and interpretations. This type of role for the therapist is described as a _____________ approach. | a) free association | b) directive | c) biomedical | d) nondirective |
8. c Rogers believed the closer the match between a person's ideal and real selves, the happier the person. It was Freud, not Rogers, who viewed unresolved unconscious conflicts between the id and superego as the cause of personal problems.
8. What did Carl Rogers view as a cause of most personal problems and unhappiness? | a) reinforcement of maladaptive behavior patterns | b) unrealistic modes of thought employed by many people | c) mismatch between an individual's ideal self and real self | d) unresolved unconscious conflicts occur between the id and superego |
9. d Rogers felt a therapist must provide the four elements of reflection, unconditional positive regard, empathy, and authenticity in order for successful treatment.
9. Which of the following was NOT one of the four key elements Rogers viewed as necessary for a successful person-therapist relationship? | a) reflection | b) unconditional positive regard | c) authenticity | d) resistance |
10. d The major goal of Gestalt therapists is to help clients become more aware of their feelings. Providing unconditional positive regard is the primary goal of person-centered therapy, not Gestalt.
10. What is a major goal of the Gestalt therapist? | a) to facilitate transference | b) to eliminate the client's undesirable behaviors | c) to provide unconditional positive regard | d) to help clients become more aware of their own feelings |
11. b The humanistic therapist does not run the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by the client because the therapist uses reflection as the main means of communication. However, unfortunately at this point there is not enough empirical evidence to support or refute the basic ideas of humanistic therapy.
11. Which of the following is a limitation of humanistic therapy? | a) Clients do not need to be verbal. | b) There is not enough empirical research to support its basic ideas. | c) It cannot be used in a variety of contexts. | d) The therapist runs the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by the client. |
12. b Both the cigarette and nicotine are stimuli, so choices c and d can be immediately eliminated. In rapid smoking, the cigarette serves as the conditioned stimulus and the nicotine serves as the unconditioned stimulus.
12. In the aversion therapy technique known as rapid smoking the client takes a puff on a cigarette every five or six seconds so that the nicotine now produces unpleasant responses such as nausea and dizziness, so that eventually the cigarette itself produces a sensation of nausea in the client. In the terms of classical conditioning, the cigarette functions as the ________ and the nicotine is the ___________. | a) UCS; CS | b) CS; UCS | c) CR; UCS | d) CS; UCR |
13. d Systematic desensitization involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared object, while extinction involves the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a particular response.
13. Which method of treating phobias involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared object? | a) extinction | b) punishment | c) token economy | d) systematic desensitization |
14. b In a token economy, the tokens are the reinforcers used to shape and strengthen the desired behaviors.
14. In a token economy, what role does the token play in shaping behavior? | a) The tokens are used as punishment to decrease the maladaptive behavior. | b) The tokens are used to reinforce the desired behavior. | c) The token is the actual behavior itself. | d) The token represents the written contract between the client and therapist. |
15. a Operant conditioning is not concerned with the cause of the problems, rather it is concerned with changing behavior. However, operant conditioning does provide rapid change in behavior in comparison to other therapies.
15. What is an advantage of using operant conditioning in treating undesirable behaviors? | a) The results are usually quickly obtained. | b) Clients can get an understanding of the underlying cause of the problem. | c) Unconscious urges are revealed. | d) Clients can change distorted thought patterns that affect behavior. |
16. d Behavior therapy may help relieve some symptoms but does not treat the overall disorder of schizophrenia.
16. Which of the following is one of the criticisms of behavior therapy? | a) It focuses on the underlying cause of behavior and not the symptoms. | b) Therapy typically lasts for several years and is very expensive. | c) It focuses too much on the past. | d) It only relieves some symptoms of schizophrenia but does not treat the overall disorder. |
17. b Cognitive therapy focuses on changing an individual's cognitions or thought processes.
17. What is the goal of cognitive therapy? | a) to help clients gain insight into their unconscious | b) to help people change their ways of thinking | c) to change a person's behavior through shaping and reinforcement | d) to provide unconditional positive regard for the client |
18. b Beck's cognitive therapy is especially effective in treating distortions related to depression.
18. Which of these clients is the most likely candidate for Aaron Beck's form of cognitive therapy? | a) Albert, who suffers from mania | b) Barbara, who suffers from depression | c) Robert, who suffers from schizophrenia | d) Virginia, who has been diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder |
19. a Cognitive behavioral therapists are concerned with helping clients change their irrational thoughts to more rational and positive thoughts. A person-centered therapist believes disorders come from a mismatch between the ideal self and the real self and a lack of unconditional positive regard.
19. Which approach assumes that disorders come from illogical, irrational cognitions and that changing the thinking patterns to more rational, logical ones will relieve the symptoms of the disorder? | a) cognitive-behavioral | b) person-centered | c) psychoanalytic | d) Gestalt |
20. b Ellis believes irrational beliefs cause dissatisfaction and depression.
20. According to Albert Ellis, we become unhappy and depressed about events because of _______. | a) our behaviors | b) our irrational beliefs | c) the events that happen to us | d) other people's irrational beliefs |
21. d Irrational beliefs typically have one thing in common; they are all-or-none types of statements.
21. Which of the following is the best example of an irrational belief that a therapist using rational-emotive behavioral therapy would challenge you to change? | a) It is disappointing when things don't go my way. | b) If I fail this test, it will hurt my grade in this class but I will try to make it up on the next exam. | c) There must be something wrong with Bob since he turned down my invitation for a date. | d) Everyone should love and approve of me and if they don't, there must be something wrong with me. |
22. c Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies are relatively inexpensive and are short-term.
22. Which of the following is an advantage of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies? | a) Clients do not need to be verbal. | b) They treat the underlying cause of the problem. | c) They are less expensive and short-term than typical insight therapies | d) The therapist decides which of the client's beliefs are rational and which are irrational. |
23. a Group therapy provides social support for people who have similar problems. However, an extremely shy person is not likely to do as well in group therapy.
23. An advantage to group therapy is that groups | a) are a source of social support. | b) allow countertransference to occur. | c) provide unconditional approval to the group members. | d) allow an extremely shy person to feel more comfortable speaking up. |
24. d Family therapy focuses on the entire family as a part of the problem.
24. In family therapy, the therapist would most likely | a) focus on one individual who has been identified as the source of the problem. | b) have each family member come in for therapy individually. | c) provide unconditional approval to all the family members. | d) focus on the entire family system to understand the problem. |
25. b Currently there are an extremely large number of self-help groups in the United States.
25. Which of the following is NOT true about self-help support groups? | a) Self-help groups do not have leaders. | b) Currently there are only a limited number of self-help groups operating in the United States. | c) Self-help groups are typically not directed by a licensed therapist. | d) Self-help groups are usually free to attend. |
26. a Group therapy can provide help to those who may be unable to afford individual psychotherapy.
26. An advantage of group therapy is that it | a) can provide help to individuals who may be unable to afford individual psychotherapy. | b) can be helpful to individuals who are uncomfortable in social situations. | c) can only be used alone and not in combination with any other form of therapy. | d) can be helpful to those who have difficulty speaking in public. |
27. a EMDR is a form of therapy in which the client is directed to move the eyes rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory. Systematic desensitization gradually exposes the client to the feared object while using relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety.
27. __________ is a controversial form of therapy in which the client is directed to move the eyes rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory. | a) Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing | b) Systematic desensitization | c) Eye-memory therapy | d) Eye therapy
28. c An eclectic view is one that combines a number of different approaches to best fit the needs of the client.
28. Most psychological professionals today take a(n) ______ view of psychotherapy. | a) group treatment | b) humanistic | c) eclectic | d) behavioral |
29. c A number of studies have found that the client-therapist relationship (also called the therapeutic alliance) is the best predictor of successful treatment.
29. The most important aspect of a successful psychotherapy treatment is | a) the length of the session. | b) the specific approach of the therapist. | c) the relationship between the client and the therapist. | d) the severity of the disorder. |
30. c Members of minority groups are much more likely to drop out of therapy when compared to members of majority racial and ethnic groups.
30. Studies that have examined cultural and ethnic factors in the therapeutic relationship have found that | a) members of minority racial or ethnic groups are more likely to continue treatment until the problem has been resolved. | b) members of the majority racial or ethnic group usually have lower prevalence rates of disorders. | c) members of minority racial or ethnic groups drop out of therapy at a higher rate than members of the majority group. | d) members of minority racial or ethnic groups rarely or never seek therapy. |
31. d The severity of the disorder has not been found to be a cultural barrier for treatment.
31. Which of the following has NOT been found to be a barrier to effective psychotherapy when the cultural background of client and therapist is different? | a) language differences | b) differing cultural values | c) nonverbal communication | d) severity of the disorder |
32. c Hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behaviors are defined as psychotic behaviors and are treated with antipsychotic drugs. Antidepressant drugs, not antipsychotic drugs, treat feelings of hopelessness, sadness, and suicide ideations.
32. Antipsychotic drugs treat symptoms such as | a) hopelessness, sadness, and suicide ideations. | b) excessive worry, repetitive thoughts, and compulsive behavior. | c) hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior. | d) manipulation, lying, and cheating. |
33. d The speed of action and effectiveness is similar among the three classes of antidepressants but the main difference is the number of negative side effects. The SSRIs actually target only one neurotransmitter: serotonin.
33. In what way is the new class of antidepressants known as the SSRIs an improvement over the older types of antidepressants? | a) They work faster. | b) They are more effective. | c) They target a larger number of different neurotransmitters. | d) They have fewer side effects. |
34. b ECT was originally designed to induce seizures in schizophrenics.
34. For which disorder was electroconvulsive therapy originally developed as a treatment? | a) panic | b) schizophrenia | c) bipolar disorder | d) cyclothymia |
35. b Severing the spinal cord would lead to the very negative side effect of paralysis of the body. Psychosurgery is performed on brain tissue.
35. Which of the following is the appropriate definition of psychosurgery? | a) information given to a patient about a surgical procedure before the surgery in order to prevent anxiety | b) surgery that is performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders. | c) surgery that severs the spinal cord of the patient | d) a procedure in which a brief current of electricity is used to trigger a seizure that typically lasts one minute, causing the body to convulse |
36. b Frontal lobotomies are no longer performed; however, bilateral cingulotomies are still performed on severe cases in which no other treatments have been found to be effective.
36. Psychosurgery is no longer performed in the United States. | a) True, long-term studies highlighting the serious negative side effects of lobotomies led to the discontinuation of all psychosurgery techniques in the United States. | b) False, although frontal lobotomies are no longer performed, bilateral cingulotomies are still carried out on patients that have not been helped by any other treatment. | c) False, frontal lobotomies are still performed on a small number of patients in the United States today. | d) True, all forms of psychosurgery have been banned in the United States. |
37. d Currently the effects of antidepressants in children are not clearly understood.
37. Which of the following statements about antidepressants taken by children and adolescents is true? | a) They are known to be very effective. | b) They are not very effective. | c) Their effects are clearly understood. | d) Their effects are not clearly understood. |