Systemic Pathology: Neoplasia and Pleural Dz

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What are examples of primary benign neoplasias of the lung that are epithelial origin?

Primary benign: rare

- Papillary adenoma

- Bronchiolar‐alveolar adenoma

Image 1A

Primary Adenocarcinoma

Image 1B

Primary adenocarcinoma

- flower appearance

What are examples of malignant primary lung neoplasia that are epithelial in origin?

Bronchiolar‐alveolar carcinoma: esp. dogs

Adenocarcinoma: esp. cats

Squamous cell carcinoma: rare in lung

Anaplastic carcinoma

Carcinoid (neuroendocrine)

Retroviral pulmonary carcinoma (sheep)

What is Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus?

 Exists in most sheep raising parts of the world

A significant problem in south Africa

Disputed breed differences in susceptibility

A retrovirus has been identified

Describe the lesions it produces?

Infectious multicentric pulmonary tumors of sheep

IMAGE 2a

Image 2b

Jaagsiekte retrovirus

also flower appearance

What are examples of benign primary neoplasia that are mesenchymal in origin?

- hemangioma → pretty rare, potential because of BV in lungs

What are examples of malignant neoplasia's of the lungs that are mesenchymal in origin?

Osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma - both rare

 Hemangiosarcoma

Malignant histiocytosis (canine) → Bernese Mtn Dog

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis

Granular cell tumor (equine) → common in horses

 Mesothelioma → pleural kind

What is the most common primary lung tumor in horses?

Granular Cell tumor

What cells/tissues do granular cell tumors originate from?

- Neuroectodermal or neuroendocrine

What do granular cell tumors look like grossly?

- Bulge into bronchial lumen and obstruct airways

- half of lung blocked off → becomes atelectic

Describe the histology of granular cell tumors?

Round cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm
and PAS‐positive granules

What are examples of metastatic tumors?

 Lymphoma

Uterine carcinoma cow

Malignant melanoma

Sarcoma‐ dogs and cats → HSA, OSA, mast cell tumor

 Carcinoma → urinary bladder, thyroid gland, pancreas, intestine

Image

multi focal
dark brown to black
diffuse

What is pneumothorax?

- air/gas in the thorax

What does pneumothorax result in?

- atelectasis because negative thoracic
pressure cannot be maintained

- something cause negative pressure to change

What should you listen to during the opening of a thorax during a necropsy?

- listen for entry of air → normal

What are causes of pneumothorax?

Trauma‐ bite wound, projectile, hit‐by‐car ****

Rupture of emphysematous bullae

Rupture of abscess or granuloma that
communicates with airway.

Image

thymus : light pink in cranial cavity

lungs: atelectic, doesn't look real

Describe the mediastinum in the:

1. horse

2. Cattle

3. Dog/Cat

1. Communication between the two pleural cavities

2. No communication between the two pleural cavities → only 1/2 will be affected

3. The partition is very delicate but complete

What is hydrothorax?

- noninflammatory pleural effusion

- clear to yellow (amber) fluid (transudate)

What might cause a hydrothorax?

- increased venous pressure

- lymphatic obstruction

- hypoproteinemia

What animal do we see hydrothorax commonly in?

cats with CHF

cardiomyopathy

When do we see hydrothorax in dogs?

CHF

can be just around the heart or in chest

What might be seen microscopically with chronic hydrothorax?

- can cause reactive hyperplasia of
mesothelial cells

- fibrotic pleura

What is chylothorax?

- noninflammatory pleural effusion

- accumulation of lymph fluid and chyle

In what Clinical Dz's is chylothorax seen?

- Feline cardiomyopathy

- right‐sided heart failure

- Obstruction of thoracic duct by thoracic masses → prevent release of lymph into vena cava

What are examples of possible thoracic masses?

 Lymphoma

 Thymoma

 Granuloma

What might you be looking for in a cytology of the pleural effusions?

look for bacteria

What is a hemothorax?

blood in the thorax

What are possible causes of a hemothorax? 6

1. Blood loss into thorax

2. Rupture of blood vessels‐ trauma

3. Inherited coagulopathy

4. Anticoagulant rodenticide → brodifacoum, diphacinone

5. Rupture of lung neoplasm → hemangiosarcoma

6. Aortic ruptures in horse

Image

rodenticide toxicity

What is pleuritis?

- inflammation of the pleura

What is the most common cause of pleuritis?

- infectious agents (usually bacteria)

- most often reach pleura from
blood or from lesions of bronchopneumonia, aspiration pneumonia or lung abscesses

What is a pyothorax?

 Turbid

White to red exudate

What are causes of pyothorax in dogs? cats?

Dog‐ grass awns

Cat‐ bite wound, FIP

Image

- unilateral pyothorax

- see one side atelectasis

Image

feline:

- pyothorax/pleuritis, unilateral

- against wall, see reactive mesothelial cells and fibrin

What are causes of bacterial pleuritis?

Actinomyces
Norcardia
Bacteroides
Arcanobacterium

What kind of infections usually cause bacterial pleuritis?

What condition does it usually occur with?

1. usually mixed

2. primary pneumonia

Image

- pus
- granular nodules

What are sulfur granules?

- granular nodules, crumbly yellow
- if see these think actinomyces

Bacterial Pleuritis

Bacterial pleuritis

Fibrinous Pleuritis

- fibrin peeling off
- bacterial pneumonia

Chronic (fibrous) pleuritis

- more fibrous appearance

- fibrin becomes organized

When do you see a chronic fibrous pleuritis?

with recurrent problems
primarily feedlot cattle

What is mesothelioma? ****

What structures does it arise from? 2

- neoplasia of the pleura

- from pleura and pericardium

Where do pleural mesothelioma spread from?

What do they cause in the thorax?

- spreads along pleura

- thoracic effiusion

Describe grossly mesothelioma?

- Velvety plaques or occasionally nodules on the pleural surface

What is a cause of mesothelioma in ppl?

asbestos?

Mesothelioma

- plaques along pleura, diaphragm

- will often extend to wall thru extension not metastasis

How do neoplasms metastisize to the pleura?

- Transpleural dissemination of carcinomas and sarcomas

- from the lung, chest wall and mediastinum

Metastatic Neoplasms

Metastatic Neoplasms

What is herpesvirus?

Where do they primarily cause disease in most animals?

Where does the virus hide out?

DNA virusesIntranuclear inclusion bodies

At least one for every species

 Many of which are primarily respiratory pathogens

 Latency

 like to hide in nerves and come out when stressed → trigeminal

What is the fline respiratory complex?

Feline herpesvirus‐1

Feline calicivirus

Bordetella bronchiseptica

Chlamydophila felis

Secondary bacterial infections

When is herpes seen in cats?

- crowded living conditions

Describe the pathogenesis of feline resp. complex?

Mostly URT → moves to LRT

- viral infection of cells
→ epithelial necrosis/disruption
→ erosion/ulceration
→ acute inflammation
→ mixed secondary bacterial infection
→ severe infection can extend to LRT

Feline Herpes Virus

- lots of ulceration = nasal planum

- exudate from around eyes

- often have FeLeuk and FIP

Feline Calicivirus

What is a key characteristic of this in cats?

- ulceration on tongue

What is Cryptococcus neoformans?

- Most common systemic fungal infection in cats

- less common in dogs

- from spores in dirt - unusual to get from necropsy

What immune condition are cats in that often have crypto

immunosuppressed → FeLV or FIV or both

Describe the most common signs of cryptococcus neoformans?

nasal ulceration and drainage

What clinical dz may also occur with crypto?

Granulomatous pneumonia (rare)

Where can crypto in the cribiform plate spread to?

Cryptococcus neoformans

Cryptococcus neoformans

Cryptococcus neoformans

What is Infectious tracheobronchitis? *****

- kennel cough

- Syndrome affecting dogs

What pathogens are involved in kennel cough?

1. Bordetella bronchiseptica

2. Parainfluenza type 2

3. Canine Adenovirus‐2

4. Mycoplasmas → s/t cultured

5. CAV‐1, CHV‐1 and CRCoV

What does bordetella bronchiseptica do to respiratory tract?

- Attach to the cilia and causes ciliostasis

What does CAV-2 do to the redo. tract?

Tracheal epithelial necrosis → so bord can get in and set up

What are sources of kennel cough infections?

 Boarding facility
 Obedience classes
 Off‐lease dog parks  Dog shows
 Vet clinics

What can kennel cough progress to?

What bacteria may be involved?

bronchopneumonia:

 Klebsiella
 Streptococcus  Escherichia coli  Pseudomonas

Kennel cough pathogenesis

What effect does CDV (distemper) have on the immune response?

- decreases it

- Down‐regulates cytokines
- Persists in tissues

What kind of pneumonia can CDV cause? ****

- PRIMARY viral pneumonia → broncho‐interstitial

- SECONDARY bacterial pneumonia

- interstitial pneumonia

What conditions can an interstitial pneumonia be accompanied with?

 Necrotizing bronchiolitis

 Alveolar edema

 Type II pneumocyte hyperplasia

 Intranuclear and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies

What is Blastomycosis? **NAVLE**

 Endemic to Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio river valleys

 Soil saprophyte, associated with water

How do dog acquire it?

- infection via inhalation, young adult dogs

What organs or tissue become involved after inhalation>

Lung and regional lymph nodes usually involved

Where can the pathogen disseminate to?

skin, lymph nodes, eyes, CNS, bones, urogenital, joints

Describe gross lesions of blastomycois?


What must you rule out?

- Granulomatous pneumonia, usually multiple nodules

- Have to rule out neoplasia

Blastomycosis

can look miliary

Blatomycosis

Blastomycosis?

does look like neoplasia, but its blasto

What are the influenze A virus hosts?

humans, swine, horses, birds

HA: 1‐16
NA: 1‐9

H1N1, H1N2, H3N2

What are INflu. B hosts?

humans, swine evidence of Ab but not isolated

What in influenza C hosts?

rare

INfluenza A

- Equine: H3N8 (H7N7 not seen in several years)

- Canine: H3N8 related to equine

Influenza A external and internal proteins?

2009 influenze triple resortment virus mixed with eurasion

What are CS of Influenza in swine?

 Fever

 Coughing

 Sneezing

 Nasal discharge

 Anorexia

 Poor weight gain

 Labored breathing to "thumping"

What ages are affect by influenze?

all

When do lung lesions resolve?

What is the prognosis of influenza in pigs?

- in 14 -21 days

- self limiting in uncomplicated cases

When did pigs experimentally inoculated begin to show CS?

When did these CS end?

What did CS coincide with?

- Starts: 1‐3 days after infection

- Ends: 4‐8 days after infection

- virus shedding → nasal secretions

What can reduce virus shedding?

48‐72 hours with protective antibodies

 Vaccines

Previous exposure

Image

- can look like mycoplasma,

CrVentral consolidation of the lung

3-4 DPI with Influenza in pig

basal cells trying to stretch out and cover exposed basement membrane

7-10 DPI with influenza in pig

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