apush chapter 23-26 practice questions set #1

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ew.

At the conclusion of the Civil War, General Ulysses S. Grant

accepted gifts of houses and money from citizens

As a result of the Civil War

waste, extravagance, speculation, and graft reduced the moral stature of
the Republic.

In the late nineteenth century, those political candidates who campaigned by "waving the bloody shirt" were reminding voters

of the "treason" of the Confederate Democrats during the Civil War

Which one of the following is least related to the other three?
a. Jim Fisk
b. "Black Friday"
c. Jay Gould
d. "Ohio Idea"
e. Wall Street gold market

D

One weapon that was used to put Boss Tweed, leader of New York City's infamous Tweed Ring, in jail was

the cartoons of the political satirist Thomas Nast.

The Crédit Mobilier scandal involved

railroad construction kickbacks.

In an attempt to avoid prosecution for their corrupt dealings, the owners of Crédit Mobilizer

distributed shares of the company's valuable stock to key congressmen.

President Ulysses S. Grant was reelected in 1872 because

his opponents chose a poor candidate for the presidency.

Match each politician below with the Republican political faction with which he was associated.
A. Roscoe Conkling 1. "Half-Breeds"
B. James Blaine 2. Stalwarts
C. Horace Greeley 3. Regular Republicans
D. Ulysses Grant 4. Liberal Republicans

A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3

One cause of the panic that broke in 1873 was

the construction of more factories than existing markets would bear

As a solution to the panic or depression of 1873, debtors suggested

inflationary policies

One result of Republican "hard money" policies was

the formation of the Greenback Labor party

Those who enjoyed a successful political career in the post-Civil War decades were usually

party loyalists

During the Gilded Age, the Democrats and the Republicans

had few significant economic differences.

The presidential elections of the 1870s and 1880s

aroused great interest among voters.

One reason for the extremely high voter turnouts and partisan fervor of the Gilded Age was

sharp ethnic and cultural differences in the membership of the two parties

During the Gilded Age, the lifeblood of both the Democratic and the Republican parties was

political patronage

"Spoilsmen" was the label attached to those who

expected government jobs from their party's elected officeholders

The major problem in the 1876 presidential election centered on

the two sets of election returns submitted by Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana.

The Compromise of 1877 resulted in

the withdrawal of federal troops from the South

The sequence of presidential terms of the "forgettable presidents" of the Gilded Age (including Cleveland's two nonconsecutive terms) was

Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, Cleveland.

At the end of Reconstruction, Southern whites disenfranchised African Americans with

poll taxes (made illegal in federal elections via the 24th amendment in 1964, and in state elections subsequent to the via supreme court ruling.) literacy tests (made illegal by the voting rights act of 1965), grandfather clauses (made illegal by supreme court decision in 1915), and economic intimidation

The legal codes that established the system of segregation were

called Jim Crow laws.

The presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes opened with

scenes of class warfare

The railroad of 1877 started when

the four largest railroads cut salaries by ten percent.

Labor unrest during the Hayes administration stemmed from

the collapse of the steel industry.

Labor unrest in the 1870s and 1880s resulted in

the use of federal troops during strikes

In the wake of anti-Chinese violence in California, the United States Congress

passed a law prohibiting the immigration of Chinese laborers to America.

Which of the following internal developments in China resulted in Chinese immigration to the United States?

boxer rebellion

One of the main reasons that the Chinese came to the United States was to

dig for gold

The Chinese word tong means

meeting hall

Abraham Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated while in office; the second was

James Garfield

President James A. Garfield was assassinated

by a deranged, disappointed office seeker.

The Pendleton Act required appointees to public office to

take a competitive examination

With the passage of the Pendleton Act, politicians now sought money from

big corporations

The 1884 election contest between James G. Blaine and Grover Cleveland was noted for

its personal attacks on the two candidates.

Which one of the following Gilded Age presidents had a different party affiliation from the other four?

Grover Cleveland

When he was president, Grover Cleveland's hands-off approach to government gained the support of

businesspeople

In the presidential election of 1868, Ulysses S. Grant

owed his victory to the votes of former slaves.

On the issue of the tariff, President Grover Cleveland

advocated a lower rate

The major campaign issue of the 1888 presidential election was

tariff policy

In the latter decades of the nineteenth century, it was generally true that the locus of political power was

Congress.

The "Billion-Dollar Congress" quickly disposed of rising government surpluses by

expanding pensions for Civil War veterans.

Which of the following was not among the platform planks adopted by the Populist Party in their convention of 1892?

d. government guarantees of "parity prices" for farmers

The four states completely carried by the Populists in the election of 1892 were

Kansas, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada.

The early Populist campaign to create a coalition of white and black farmers ended in

a racist backlash that eliminated black voting in the South.

The political developments of the l890s were largely shaped by

the most severe and extended economic depression up to that time.

Economic unrest and the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act led to the rise of the pro-silver leader

William Jennings Bryan.

President Grover Cleveland aroused widespread public anger by his action of

borrowing $65 million in gold from J.P. Morgan's banking syndicate.

The greatest political beneficiary of the backlash against President Cleveland in the Congressional elections of 1894 were

the Republicans.

When private railroad promoters asked the United States government for subsidies to build their railroads, they gave all of the following reasons for their request except that it was

impossible to serve military and postal needs without government help

During the Gilded Age, most of the railroad barons

built their railroads with government assistance

The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in the late nineteenth century by providing railroad corporations with

land grants.

Match each railroad company below with the correct entrepreneur.
A. James J. Hill
1. Central Pacific
B. Cornelius Vanderbilt 2. New York Central
C. Leland Stanford
3. Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe
4. Great Norther

A-4, B-2, C-1

The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the

Great Northern.

One by-product of the development of the railroads was

the movement of people to cities.

The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was

the railroad network.

The United States changed to standard time zones when

the major rail lines decreed common fixed times so that they could keep schedules and avoid wrecks.

Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were called

pools.

Early railroad owners formed "pools" in order to

...

Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of action by

...

One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it

represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business.

After the Civil War, the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the United States

...

One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was

elimination of as much competition as possible.

Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise with which he is historically identified.
A. Andrew Carnegie 1. interlocking directorate
B. John D. Rockefeller 2. trust
C. J. Pierpont Morgan
3. vertical integration
4. pool

A-3, B-2, C-1

Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise with which he is historically identified.
A. Andrew Carnegie
1. steel
B. John D. Rockefeller 2. oil
C. J. Pierpont Morgan
3. tobacco
D. James Duke
4. banking

A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3

The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of

Henry Bessemer.

J.P. Morgan undermined competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly independent companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as a(n)

interlocking dictorate

America's first billion-dollar corporation was

United States Steel.

The first major product of the oil industry was

kerosene

The oil industry became a huge business

using federal agents to break his competitors

John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry except

using federal agents to break his competitors

The "gospel of wealth," which associated godliness with riches,

held that the wealthy should display moral responsibility for their God-given money.

To help corporations, the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to

avoid corporate regulation by the states.

The _______________ Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when defending themselves against regulation by state governments.

fourteenth

During the age of industrialization, the South

remained overwhelmingly rural and agricultural.

The South's major attraction for potential investors was

cheap labor

In the late nineteenth century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor especially attracted _______________ manufacturing to the "new South."

textile

Many Southerners saw employment in the textile mills as

the only steady jobs and wages available.

One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was

the need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock.

The group most affected by the new industrial age was

women

Despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century, industrial workers were extremely vulnerable to all of the following except

new educational requirements for jobs

The image of the "Gibson Girl" represented

a romantic ideal of the independent and athletic "new woman."

Most women workers of the 1890s worked for

economic necessity.

Which one of the following is least like the other three?

closed shop

Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor

corporations.

Match each labor organization below with the correct description.
A. National Labor Union 1. the "one big union" that championed producer cooperatives and industrial arbitration
B. Knights of Labor 2. a social-reform union killed by the depression of the 1870s
C. American Federation of Labor 3. an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions

A-2, B-1, C-3

In its efforts on behalf of workers, the National Labor Union won

an eight-hour day for government workers

One group barred from membership in the Knights of Labor was

Chinese

The Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when

labor would own and operate businesses and industries.

The Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions and institutions could be preserved from corrupt monopolies

by strengthening the economic and political independence of the workers.

One of the major reasons the Knights of Labor failed was its

lack of class consciousness

The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was the

American Federation of Labor

By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and strike. Nevertheless,

the vast majority of employers continued to fight organized labor.

By 1900, organized labor in America

had begun to develop a more positive image with the public.

The people who found fault with the "captains of industry" mostly argued that these men

built their corporate wealth and power by exploiting workers.

Even historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism generally concede that class-based protest has never been a powerful force in the United States because

America has greater social mobility than Europe has.

All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion except

immigration restrictions.

The tremendously rapid growth of American cities in the post-Civil War decades was

a trend that affected Europe as well.

The major factor in drawing country people off the farms and into the big cities was

the availability of industrial jobs

The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the

Interstate Commerce Commission.

The New Immigrants who came to the United States after 1880

were culturally different from previous immigrants.

Most Italian immigrants to the United States between 1880 and 1920 came to escape

the poverty and backwardness of southern Italy.

A "bird of passage" was an immigrant who

came to America to work for a short time and then returned to Europe

Most New Immigrants

tried to preserve their Old Country culture in America.

In the new urban environment, most liberal Protestants

rejected biblical literalism and adapted religious ideas to modern culture.

Settlement houses such as Hull House engaged in all of the following activities except

instruction in socialism.

The place that offered the greatest opportunities for American women in the period 1865-1900 was

the big city.

Labor unions favored immigration restriction because most immigrants were all of the following except

opposed to factory labor

The religious denomination that responded most favorably to the New Immigration was

Roman Catholics.

Booker T. Washington believed that the key to political and civil rights for African Americans was

economic independence

As a leader of the African American community, Booker T. Washington

promoted black self-help but did not challenge segregation.

Match each of these late-nineteenth-century writers with the theme of his work: A. Lewis Wallace 1. success and honor as the products of honesty and hard work
B. Horatio Alger 2. anti-Darwinism support for the Holy Scriptures
C. Henry James 3. contemporary social problems like divorce, labor strikes, and socialism
D. William Dean Howells 4. psychological realism and the dilemmas of sophisticated women.

A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3

American novelists' turn from romanticism and transcendentalism to rugged social realism reflected the

because they accepted the idea that a free government cannot function without educated citizens.

Which of the following prominent post-Civil War writers did not reflect the increased attention to social problems by those from less affluent backgrounds?

Henry Adams.

In the decades after the Civil War, changes in sexual attitudes and practices were reflected in all of the following except

more children being born out of wedlock.

In the course of the late nineteenth century,

family size gradually declined.

By 1900, advocates of women's suffrage

argued that the vote would enable women to extend their roles as mothers and homemakers to the public world.

The American Protective Association

supported immigration restrictions.

The new, research-oriented modern American university tended to

de-emphasize religious and moral instruction in favor of pratical subjects and professional specialization.

The "pragmatists" were a school of American philosophers who emphasized

the provisional and fallible nature of knowledge and value of ideas that solved problems.

Americans offered growing support for a free public education system

because they accepted the idea that a free government cannot function without educated citizens.

The post-Civil War era witnessed

an increase in compulsory school-attendance laws.

That a "talented tenth" of American blacks should lead the race to full social and political equality with whites was the view of

W. E. B. Du Bois.

The Morrill Act of 1862

granted public lands to states to support higher education.

Black leader Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois

demanded complete equality for African Americans.

In the decades after the Civil War, college education for women

became much more common.

Which of the following was not among the major new research universities founded in the post-Civil War era?

Harvard University

During the industrial revolution, life expectancy

measurably increased

The public library movement across America was greatly aided by the generous financial support from

Andrew Carnegie.

American newspapers expanded their circulation and public attention by

printing sensationalist stories of sex and scandal.

Henry George believed that the root of social inequality and social injustice lay in

landowners who gained unearned wealth from rising land values.

Henry George argued that the windfall real estate profits caused by rising land prices should be

taxed at a 100 percent rate by the government.

General Lewis Wallace's book Ben Hur

defended Christianity against Darwinism.

135. Match each of these late-nineteenth-century writers with the theme of his work.
A. Lewis Wallace 1. success and honor as the products of honesty and hard work
B. Horatio Alger 2. anti-Darwinism support for the Holy Scriptures
C. Henry James 3. contemporary social problems like divorce, labor strikes, and socialism
D. William Dean Howells 4. psychological realism and the dilemmas of sophisticated women.

A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3

American novelists' turn from romanticism and transcendentalism to rugged social realism reflected the

materialism and conflicts of the new industrial society.

Which of the following prominent post-Civil War writers did not reflect the increased attention to social problems by those from less affluent backgrounds?

Henry Adams.

In the decades after the Civil War, changes in sexual attitudes and practices were reflected in all of the following except

more children being born out of wedlock.

In the course of the late nineteenth century,

family size gradually declined.

By 1900, advocates of women's suffrage

argued that the vote would enable women to extend their roles as mothers and homemakers to the public world.

One of the most important factors leading to an increased divorce rate in the late nineteenth century was the

stresses of urban life.

The National American Woman Suffrage Association

limited its membership to whites.

The growing prohibition movement especially reflected the concerns of

middle class women.

The term Richardsonian in the late nineteenth century pertained to

architecture

During industrialization, Americans increasingly

shared a common and standardized popular culture.

Which of the following sports was not developed in the decades following the Civil War?

baseball

In post-Civil War America, Indians surrendered their lands only when they

received solemn promises from the government that they would be left alone and provided with supplies on the remaining land.

In the warfare that raged between the Indians and the American military after the Civil War, the

there was often great cruelty and massacres on both sides.

The Indians battled whites for all the following reasons except to

rescue their families who had been exiled to Oklahoma.

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