Lying above the kidneys, the pair of endocrine glands that secrete epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol, hormones that arouse the body during moments of stress.
Two clusters of neurons in the limbic system that are linked to emotion, especially aggression.
A foreign substance that stimulates an immune response.
Blood vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart to other organs and tissues. A small artery i called an arteriole.
Areas of the cerebral cortex not directly involved in sensory or motor functions; rather, they integrate multistory information and higher mental functions such as thinking and speaking.
The oldest and most central region of the brain; includes the medulla, pons, and reticular formation.
The pair of respiratory tubes that branch into progressively smaller passageways, the bronchioles, culminating in the air sacs within the right and left lunch (alveoli).
Located at the rear of the brain, this brain structure coordinates voluntary movement and balance.
The thin layer of cells that covers the cerebrum; the seat of conscious sensation and information processing.
The tiny hairs that line the air passageways in the nose, mouth, and trachea; moving in wavelike fashion, the cilia trap germs and force them out of the respiratory system.
Protein molecules produced by immune cells that act on other cells to regulate immunity (include the interferons, interleukins, and tumor necrosis factors).
The body's system for digesting food; includes the digestive tract, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.
The sum total of all the genes present in an individual.
A structure in the brain's limbic system linked to memory.
Chemical messengers, released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands, that have an effect on distant organs.
Lying just below the thalamus, the region of the brain that influences hunger, thirst, body temperature, and sexual behavior; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
A network of neurons surrounding the central core of the brain; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression; includes the hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus.
Antigen-fighting white blood cells produced in the bone marrow.
The brainstem region that controls heart rate and breathing.
Lying at the rear of the frontal lobes, the region of the cerebral cortex that controls voluntary movements.
A person's observable characteristics; determined by the interaction of the individual's genotype with the environment.
The master endocrine gland controlled by the hypothalamus; releases a variety of hormones that act on other glands throughout the body.
A network of neurons running through the brainstem involved with alertness and arousal.
Lying at the front of the parietal lobes, the region of the cerebral cortex that processes body sensations such as touch.
The brain's sensory switchboard. Located on top of the brainstem, it routes messages to the cerebral cortex.
Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart form capillaries. VAMANOS!
The sex chromosome found in males and females. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one.
The sex chromosome found only in males; contains a gene that triggers the testes to begin producing testosterone.
A fertilized egg cell.