What are the feeding types?
heterotrophic: eat other things (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, insectivores)
autotrophic: make own food
What are the feeding adaptations?
suspension feeders: put large amounts of foods in mouth and strain it (whale)
substrate feeders: eat through environment (earthworms)
fluid feeders: mosquito, leech, ticks
bulk feeders: eat food whole (anaconda)
What is intracellular digestion?
inside cells, all animals, exclusive in protista and porifera
What is extracellular digestion?
outside cells, all animals above sponges
What are the two types of extracellular digestion?
gastrovascular cavity and alimentary canal
What is the gastrovascular cavity?
one opening, found in cnidaria and playhelminthes
What is the alimentary canal and what are its parts?
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard, stomach, intestine, anus
What is the purpose of salivary glands?
What is the purpose of the pancreas?
What is the purpose of the liver?
make bile, emulsify fats
What is peristalsis?
movement of food down esophagus
What is the sphincter?
circular muscle that regulates food (moves food)
What are the different names of food?
bolus: chewed saliva-smothered food
acid chyme: food in stomach
feces: after nutrients are absorbed
What are the types of teeth?
molars/premolars: crushing and grinding
Where are the initial and main sites for carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and fat?
carbohydrates: initial in mouth, main in intestine
protein: initial in stomach, main in intestine
nucleic acids: initial in intestine, main in intestine
fat: initial in intestine, main in intestine
What is the cecum?
growth area outside of intestine for bacteria
What is the digestive tract of carnivores?
short digestive system (because it's easy to break up food), small cecum (ours is appendix)
What is the digestive tract of omnivores?
generalized teeth (in order to eat everything)
What is the digestive tract of herbivores?
no canines, long digestive system (cellulose is difficult to break down), large cecum
Describe undernourished, overnourished, and malnourished
undernourished: not enough calories
overnourished: obese, too many calories
malnourished: missing one or more essential nutrients
What are the essential amino acids?
nine essential amino acids, all in animal proteins
methionine, valine, threonine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan, lysine
What are the essential fatty acids?
unsaturated fatty acids, used to make phospholipids for membranes
What are the essential vitamins?
fat soluble: stored in fat (K, A, D, E)
water soluble: excreted in urine (B complex, C)
What are the essential minerals?
inorganic nutrients: calcium and phosphorus (nones), iron (anemia), iodine (thyroid hormones), sodium, chlorine and potassium (nerve function, water regulation)
What are eating disorders?
anorexia: don't eat
bulimia: vomit, leads to acid burning esophagus
binge eating: eat a lot and then stop eating
Type I: genetic
Type II: environmental
insulin lowers glucose levels, glucagon increases glucose levels