Idea that we learn about and assess ourselves in comparison to others. This suggests that we will be happier if we have more than the person we compare ourselves to.
A compliance technique in which a request is made which will surely be turned down, and then is followed by a request that will ask less of someone.
Study: Cialdini et al (1975)
Behaviour patterns that are typical of specific groups. They are often passed down from generation to generation through observational learning by the gatekeepers of the group.
Characterized by all members of a group having a unanimous opinion, not seeking the alternative or dissenting opinions.
Study: Esser and Lindeorfer (1989)
Social Learning Theory
People learn new behavior through observational learning of the social factors in their environment.
Study: Bandura et al. (1961)(1965)
From birth onwards, people are integrated into strong and cohesive in-groups that are usually their extended family that will be ready to support and protect each other.
Opportunities seem more valuable to people when they are less readily available.
Refers to the tendency of humans to attribute their successful behaviours to dispositional factors, and their unsuccessful behaviours to their situational factors.
Study: Lau & Russell (1980)
Norms and values that define a society or social group.
The observer must be able to remember the behaviour that has been observed from the model.
People whom the researchers inject into their study to influence the subjects in one way or another.
An indirect social influence in which a person adjusts one's thoughts, feelings, behaviors in agreement with someone else or with a social norm.
Study: Asch (1951)
A result of direct social influence involving direct requests from one person to another.
Study: Milgrim (1974)
Confucian work dynamism/Time orientation dimension
Instead of focusing on truth, some cultures focus on virtue.
Long term orientation
These cultures value persistence, loyalty, and trustworthiness. Relationships based on status. They have a need to protect the collective identity and respect tradition.
Short term orientation
These cultures value personal steadiness and stability. There is a focus on the future instead of the past, and innovation is highly valued
Teachers, Parents, Religious leaders, peers. (People through whom norms are learned)
In-group and Out-group
The group to which an individual belongs.
The group to which an individual does not belong.
Study: Cialdini (1976)
Informational Social Influence
Reasons why people conform. Based on the way people cognitively process information about a situation. (social comparison or cognitive dissonance)
Normative Social Influence
Reasons why we conform based on our nature as social animals. People have the need to be accepted and avoid rejection.
This means that people tend to overlook information that contradicts what they already believe.
Study: Snyder & Swann (1978)
When one looks at two different cultures, it should not be assumed that two members from two different cultures must be different from one another, or that a single member of a culture will always demonstrate the dimensions which are the norm of that culture.
Within cross-cultural psychology where behaviour is compared across specific cultures.
Looks at behaviours that are culturally specific
When people see a relationship between two variables even when there is none.
The study represents what happens in real life
A social perception of an individual in terms of group membership of physical attributes. OR Positive or negative generalizations that are made about a group and then attributed to the members of that group.
When both variables are affected in the same way.
i.e.= The more you eat, the more you gain weight.
As one variable increases, the other decreases.
i.e.= The higher you go, the colder it gets (height increases, temperature decreases)
when every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected
a sample in which every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected
a small sample that represents a population
the results can be replicated
whether the research does what it claims to do
whether the study represents what happens in real life
whether the behaviors observed in a random sample are representative of those in a larger population
using uniform procedures in every phase of the research process
the variable that is measured after the manipulation of the independent variable
the variable that causes change in the other variables
undesirable variables that influence the relationship between the independent and dependent variables
when the participants act differently simply because they know that they are in an experiment.
also known as observer bias, this is when the experimenter sees what he or she is looking for.
this is when characteristics of the sample affect the dependent variable.
when the variable of interest is naturally occurring outside the control of the researcher.
an experiment that is carried out in a controlled environment
the experiment takes place in a natural environment, but the researchers manipulate the variables.
studies that aim to find a cause and effect relationship.
a way of collecting information from a large and dispersed group of people rather than from the very small number, which van be dealt with in a case study or interviews.
A researcher observes the behavior of an individual or group of individuals. Case studies are often focused on a limited aspect of behavior
observation is a data collection method which aims to describe behavior, in a natural setting, without trying to establish a cause-and-effect relationship.
personal (internal) factors
Fundamental Attribution Error
When people overestimate the role of dispositional factors in an individual's behaviour and underestimate the situational factors.
occurs when one is in a situation where there is a threat of being judged or treated stereotypically, or a fear of doing something that would inadvertently confirm that stereotype
Emotional distress and pressure that may undermine performance.
people comply more often with those in a position of authority
people comply with requests from people they like
people often feel they need to return a favour
people view behaviour as correct if they see others performing it.
getting people to make a commitment to something small, with the hope of persuading them to agree to something larger.
Petrova et al. = email surveys
involves changing an offer to make it less attractive to the target person after the person has agreed.
Cialdini et al. (1974) = psych students
Based on the culture's need for "personal space"
Ties between individuals are loose, everyone is expected to look after his/her family
deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.
focus on one thing at a time, there's a high degree of scheduling, punctuality, and meeting deadlines are highly valued.
many things happen at once. The focus is more on relationships and interactions. Interruptions are expected, there is little frustration experienced when things are postponed or late.
Social Identity Theory
Assume that individuals strive to improve their self image by trying to enhance their self-esteem, based on either personal identity or various social identities.
Explains social phenomena, such as, ethnocentrism, in-group favoritism, stereotyping, conformity to in-group norms.
The person must first pay attention to the model.
The observer has to be able to replicate.
Learners must want to demonstrate what they have learned.
The model must behave in a way that is consistent across situations. Factor of motivation.
Identification with the model
Tendency to imitate models who are like ourselves. Factor of Motivation
People can learn from what happens to others, they don't have to experience it themselves. Vicarious reinforcement .
Liking the model
Warm and friendly models are more likely to be imitated.
- Social and cultural environment influences individual behaviour.
- Humans are social animals and have the basic need to belong.
- We construct our conceptions of the individual and social self.