Turkish people who settled in Asia minor during the 14th century, established empire in the middle east, North Africa, and eastern Europe lasted until just after WWI
"The Conqueror"; Ottoman sultan responsible for the conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of the Byzantine Empire; converted Hagia Sophia into a mosque
Conscripted youths from conquered regions who were trained as Ottoman infantry divisions; had great political influence after the 15th century.
Head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after the 15th century often more powerful than the sultan.
Great mosque built in Istanbul during the 16th-century reign of the Ottoman ruler Suleyman the Magnificent
Founded by a Turkic nomad family with Shi'a Islamic beliefs; established a kingdom in Iran and ruled until 1722.
Eponymous founder of the Safavids, Sufi mystic; leader of the Read Heads
Safavid leader; conquered the city of Tabriz in 1501 and was proclaimed shah
Important battle between the Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Ottoman victory demonstrated the importance of firearms and checked the western advance of their Shi'a state.
Abbas I, The Great
Safavid shah (1587-1629); extended the empire to its greatest extent; used Western military technology.
Shi'a religious leaders who traced their descent to Ali's successors.
Religious leaders under the Safavids; worked to convert all subjects to Shi'ism.
Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city exemplifying Safavid architecture.
Nadir Khan Afshar
emerged following fall of Safavids, proclaims himself shah, 1736
established by Turkic invaders in 1526; endured until the mid-19th century
Turkic leader who founded the Mughal dynasty; died in 1530.
son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540 but returned to restore the dynasty in 1556.
son and successor of Humayn; built up the military and administrative structure of the dynasty; followed policies of cooperation and toleration with the Hindu majority.
religion initiated by Akbar that blended elements of Islam and Hinduism; did not survive his death.
ritual burning of high-caste Hindu women on their husbands' funeral pyres.
mausoleum for Mumtaz Mahal, built by her husband Shah Jahan; most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India.
wife of ruler Jahangir who amassed power at the Mughal court and created a faction ruling the empire during the later years of his reign.
son and successor of Shah Jahan; pushed extent of Mughal control in India; reversed previous policies to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare depleted the empire's resources; died in 1707.
people of western India; challenged Mughal rule under Aurangzeb.
Indian sect, beginning as a synthesis of Hindu and Muslim faiths; pushed to opposition to Muslim and Mughul rule.