Earth Science Final Exam

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How do andesitic and basaltic magma differ?

basaltic magma does not causes explosions

What property of water makes frost wedging happen?

it expands when it freezes

In coastal areas during the day warm air rises off of the land and cool air from over the ocean moves in to take its place, what would cause this?

convection

Which theory first explained what was happening at the ocean ridges and trenches?

Sea Floor Spreading

Which layer of the earth is the most massive?

mantle

What else advances 50 minutes per day just like the tides?

moon rise and moon set

The shapes of which two continents suggest that they were once connected together

South America and Africa

At a subduction boundary which plate will go downward?

the densest one

How can plate tectonics change climates on Earth?

by changing lattitude, elevation, and causing volcanic eruptions

A volcano with gradually sloping sides and a very broad base is a

shield cone

Stripping away layers of soil from flat land, caused by wind or run off is called?

sheet erosion

Which of the following is an example of erosion?

a river carrying sand in its current

What is the cause of most major earthquakes?

plate boundaries

What is the cause of earthquakes in our area, along the New Madrid fault?

a stress fault

How do chemical and mechanical weathering differ?

Chemical weathering can change rock into something new, mechanical weathering can not

Volcanoes in the middle of a plate such as Hawaii and Yellowstone are caused by

a hot spot

Which best describes a mudslide?

a fast downhill movement of water and soil

Minerals are not:

organic

Fossils are found in which type of rock?

sedimentary

Earth's atmosphere is mostly:

nitrogen

Which is a cause of Earth's seasons?

the tilt of Earth's axis

In which month is the earth closet to the sun?

January

Which of these is evidence that the earth revolves around the sun?

change of the stars positions (parallax) throughout the year

Approximately how much of the Earth's surface is covered by water?

75%

True or False the Earth has a circular orbit

False: Eleptical

Why would you weigh more on the poles than on the equator, keep in mind the shape of the earth and Newton Law of Universal gravitation?

you are closer to the earth's center at the poles

Which of the following best describes the Earth's lithosphere plates?

they are solid and move on top of the asthenosphere

Mineral in lava rocks can show the direction of the Earth's __________ when they formed.

magnetic field

Which of the following best describes the asthenosphere?

semi-solid and can flow

Which of the following is not true about the Mid Atlantic Ridge?

Hawaii is located above it

In the rock cycle, rocks are classified into three groups depending on:

how they formed

Where does the energy that drives Earth's wind come from?

the sun

Evidence for the Big Bang Theory comes from:

the Doppler Effect

How is magma different from lava?

magma is only below earth's surface

Magma rises toward the surface of the earth because it:

is less dense than its surroundings

How many seismograph stations do you need to locate an earthquake's epicenter?

3

The Richter scale:

measures the magnitude of an earthquake

The sun and all of its planets formed where from a:

nebula

Coastal volcanoes like the Cascades in Washington and Oregon are usually:

composite cones

Where is the western divide of the Mississippi river system?

the Rockies

What causes all mass movements?

gravity

Which of the following is the least reliable property of minerals when used to identify them?

color

Which of the following is evidence for Sea Floor Spreading?

magnetism of the ocean floor

What type of boundary forms the Aleutian Islands of Alaska?

subduction

Which of the following is located at an Uplifting boundary?

the Himalayas

The river with the largest drainage basin in North America is the:

Mississippi

Which layer of the earth is the smallest?

crust

What is the isostatic response to glaciers going away?

Uplift

The land drained by a stream and its tributaries is called a

watershed

This happens in response to stress when rocks are not flexible

faulting

Which of the following was not used as evidence for the Continental Drift Theory?

modern day animals

Subduction boundaries and uplifting boundaries are both types of :

convergent boundary

What causes earthquakes in southern California?

the San Andreas fault

Which of the following is true about surface waves?

they are the slowest and most damaging waves

In which climate is chemical weathering the most effective?

tropical rain forest

The suspended load of a river:

flows with the current

A curve in a river caused by different rates of erosion on each bank is called a:

meander

Which of the following is not one of the three types of stress?

Strain

Which type of strain happens when rocks are ductile (bendable/stretchable)?

Folding

When a continent becomes folded in a large scale what will the anticlines of the folds become?

Mountains

The phases of the moon are caused by:

the moon's revolution

How do mountains affect the temperature of a climate?

temperature drops with increased altitude

Why is Venus hotter than Mercury?

it has a strong greenhouse effect

The strength of gravity between two objects depends on:

their mass and distance from each other

What shape do planetary orbits have?

ellipse

Compared to solar eclipses, lunar eclipses:

last longer

If the dark region of the moon is growing each night then the moon is:

waning

Half of the moon is always lit by the sun, that part of the moon is always facing the:

sun

Which type of rock is found only in a thin band on the earth's upper crust, and is the least common type of rock on earth?

sedimentary

Which of the following has rings?

all have rings

Why does the moon have more impact craters on it than the earth?

the moon has no erosion or atmosphere

Which type of weathering involves a direct chemical reaction between water and rocks?

hydrolysis

Why do the polar ice caps not melt away every summer?

ice reflects almost all of the solar energy

The part of the Electromagnetic spectrum that can be divided into colors is called?

visible light

Why does a subducting ocean plate melt into magma?

it has water in it acting as a flux

Where does the warm humid air that affects our climate and that of the south eastern states come from?

The Gulf of Mexico

The type of mechanical weathering that includes uplifted rocks expanding

exfoliation

Which spectrum is used to study the hot gases of a star?

emission

How does air pressure affect a climate's moisture?

high pressure makes dry climates

Which planet is the largest of the inner planets?

Earth

These markings on bed rock show the direction of a glaciers movement.

striations

Climates at mid latitude are known for having these.

seasons

Which soil horizon is also known as top soil?

"A" horizon

Cutting steps into the sides of hills to prevent run off erosion is known as:

terracing

What feature of igneous rocks can tell you they cooled on the earth's surface?

holes

In a convection current what type of material moves upward?

low density

Large boulders moved into an area by glaciers are called?

erratics

Trees can be used to prevent erosion by this method:

wind break

Soil can be made of sediments of various sizes, which of the following is not a component of soils.

boulders

Which of the following could cause the earth's climate to warm?

increase in solar energy

Why are the polar regions of the earth cooler than the rest of the planet?

less insolation

This feature shows the final boundary of all glaciers.

moraine

Soil texture can be tested by:

feeling it

What do all tropical climates have in common?

warm temperatures

Which of the following is not a part of the new planet definition?

size

Platy, blocky, and single grained all refer too:

soil structure

Which planet is the third form the sun?

Earth

at is the Mercalli scale based upon?

damage

As you go deeper into the earth what increases with temperature?

pressure

What is the name of this class?

Earth Science

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