Josiah Strong (624)
inspired missionaries with his book, Our Country: It's Possible Future and Its Present Crisis, who looked overseas for new souls to recruit. He wrote about the superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization and called Americans to spread their religion and their values to "backward" peoples.
Alfred Thayer Mahan (624)
In 1890 he wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783 and argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance. Read by the English, Germans and Japanese, as well as by his fellow Americans, he helped stimulate the naval race among the great powers that gained momentum around the turn of the century.
Richard Olney (625)
President Cleveland's Secretary of State. He delivered a message to the British during the Venezuela crisis that stated that the British, by attempting to dominate Venezuela in this quarrel and acquire more territory, were flouting the Monroe Doctrine and that they should submit the dispute to arbitration.
Great Rapproachement (627)
This was the era sometimes called reconcilliation when the British began "patting the eagle's head" instead of the Americans "twisting the lion's tail" as Britain began cultivating American friendship as they watched the European countries vie for power.
Queen Liliuokalani (627-628)
She was the last reigning queen of Hawaii, whose defense of native Hawaiian self-rule led to a revolt by white settlers and to her dethronement. She wrote many songs, the most famous was "Aloha Oe," or Farewell to Thee, played countless times by Hawaiian bands for departing tourists.
These were the Cubans attempting to drive the Spanish out of the country. They practiced a policy of scorched earth hoping to drive the Spanish out or convince the Americans to move in and help the Cubans gain their independence.
Battleship Maine (630-631)
Early in 1898 Washington sent this ship to Cuba for a "friendly visit" but really to protect and evacuate Americans if a dangerous flare-up should happen as it had already.
Dupuy de Lome (630)
Spanish minister in Washington who had written a private letter that had been stolen from the mails describing President McKinley as an ear-to-the-ground politician who lacked good faith. The resulting uproar was so violent that Dupuy de Lome was forced to resign.
Emilio Aguinaldo (633)
leader of the Filipino insurgents was a well-educated, part-Chinese who collaborated with the Americans in the Philippines against the Spanish.
Rough Riders (634)
They were a regiment of volunteers in the Spanish-American War made up largely of western cowboys and other hardy characters, with a sprinkling of ex-polo players and ex-convicts. It was led by Colonel Wood but the group was organized principally by Theodore Roosevelt who had resigned from the Navy Department to serve as lieutenant colonel.
a document signed in a circular form around the edges so that no one person can be identified (and punished) as the first signer. When the American army was stalled in Cuba, Colonel Roosevelt was a ringleader in making demands on Washington that the army be moved before it perished.
sprang into being to fight the McKinley administration's expansionist moves. The organization counted among its members some of the most prominent people in the United States, including the presidents of Stanford and Harvard Universities, the philosopher William James and the novelist Mark Twain. Other anti-imperialists were the labor leader Samuel Gompers and the steel titan Andrew Carnegie.
Teller Amendment (631, 639)
said that when the Spanish been driven out of Cuba, the United States would give the Cubans their freedom. Many European countries doubted that this would happen. In 1902, the United States pulled out of Cuba.
Platt Amendment (639)
The United States was not going to just let this rich and strategic island (Cuba) completely loose in case a powerful country like Germany might move in. This was written into the Cuban constitution in 1901 so the United States could honor the Teller Amendment. The Cubans were not allowed to impair their independence by treaty or by contracting a debt beyond their resources. Cuba was also forced to agree that the United States might intervene with troops to restore order and to provide mutual protection. Also Cuba had to promise to lease or sell needed coaling or naval stations, ultimately two and then only one (Guantanamo) to their powerful "benefactor." The United States still occupies its 28,000 acre beachhead under an agreement that can only be revoked by the consent of both parties.
"Splendid Little War" (642)
National pride was touched and cockiness was increased by what John Hay called a ___________ This was a reference to the Spanish-American War.
Water Cure (647)
torture consisting of forcing water down the throat of a victim until they yielded information or died. This was done in the Philippines during America's putting down of the guerrilla war.
Benevolent Assimilation (647)
Millions of dollars were poured into the Philippine Islands to improve roads, sanitation, and public health. Economic ties, including trade in sugar, developed between the two peoples, teachers set up a good school system and helped make English a second language.
Open Door Note (648-649)
Americans feared that Chinese markets were being monopolized by Europeans. Secretary of State, John Hay dispatched to all great powers a communication soon known as the _____________. Hay urged them to announce that in their leaseholds or spheres of influence they would respect certain Chinese rights and the ideal of fair competition. Italy was the only European power to accept the _______________ unconditionally...and it had no leasehold or sphere of influence in China.
Boxers (649, 652)
Patriotic Chinese did not care to be used as a doormat by the Europeans. In 1900 a superpatriotic nationalistic group known as the _________ broke loose with the cry, "Kill Foreign Devils." Over two hundred missionaries and other ill-fated whites were murdered, and a number of foreign diplomats were besieged in the capital, Beijing (Peking).
Battleship Oregon (655)
The Spanish-American War had emphasized the need for the long-talked-about canal across the Central America isthmus. Americans had learned a sobering lesson when the _____________, stationed on the Pacific Coast at the outbreak of war in 1898, had to steam all the way around South America to join the fleet in Cuban waters.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (655-656)
In June 1902 Congress decided on the Panama route for the canal. They offered $10 million and $250,000 a year for a six mile wide zone. Columbia refused. After the Panama revolution (supported by the Americans) occurred and a new government was formed, the ____________ was offered and signed. The price of the canal strip stayed the same but the zone was widened from six to ten miles.
George Washington Goethals (657)
West Point engineer assigned to organize the construction of the Panama Canal.
William C. Gorgas (657)
the exterminator of yellow fever in Havana and ultimately made the Canal Zone "as safe as a health resort."
Roosevelt Corollary (657-658)
a devious policy of "preventive intervention," better known as the ___________to the Monroe Doctrine. It declared that in the event of future financial malfeasance by the Latin American nations, the United States itself would intervene, take over the customhouses, pay off the debts, and keep the troublesome powers on the other side of the Atlantic. In short, no outsiders could push around the Latin nations except Uncle Sam, Policeman of the Caribbean.
Yellow Peril (660)
White Californians ranted about a new____________ (the Japanese immigrants) and feared being drowned in an Asian sea.
Gentlemen's Agreement (661)
secret understanding was worked out, during 1907-1908, by an exchange of diplomatic notes between Washington and Tokyo. As a compromise to keep California happy, the Japanese agreed to stop the flow of laborers to the American mainland by withholding passports. California repealed the order for the segregation of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students in a special school in San Francisco.
Great White Fleet (661)
To show the Japanese that the Americans weren't afraid of them, President T. Roosevelt decided to send the American navy with its battleships around the world on a highly visible voyage around the world.
Bull Moose (688)
Fired-up Progressives entered the campaign of 1912 with righteousness and enthusiasm. T. Roosevelt boasted that he felt "as strong as a ___________," and the __________ took its place with the donkey and the elephant in the American political zoo.
Federal Reserve Act (692)
the most important piece of economic legislation between the Civil War and the New Deal. The new Federal Reserve Board, appointed by the president, oversaw a nationwide system of twelve regional reserve banks, each with its own central bank. The final authority of the Federal Reserve Board guaranteed a substantial measure of public control. The board was also empowered to issue paper money—"Federal Reserve Notes"—backed by commercial paper, such as promissory notes of businesspeople. Thus the amount of money in circulation could be swiftly increased as needed for the legitimate requirements of business.
Federal Trade Commission Act (692)
The new law empowered a presidentially appointed commission to turn a searchlight on industries engaged in interstate commerce, such as meatpackers. The commissioners were expected to crush monopoly at the source by rooting out unfair trade practices, including unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, adulteration, and bribery.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act (692)
it lengthened the Sherman Act's list of business practices that were deemed objectionable, including price discrimination and interlocking directorates (where the same people served as the directors of supposedly competing businesses).
Federal Farm Loan Act (693)
In 1916, this act made credit available to farmers at low rates of interest—as long demanded by the Populists.
Warehouse Act (693)
This act, also passed in 1916, authorized loans on security of staple crops—another Populist idea.
Seaman's Act (693)
required decent treatment and a living wage on American merchant ships. One unhappy result of this well-intentioned law was the crippling of America's merchant marine, as freight rates spiraled upward with the crew's wages.
Workingmen's Compensation Act (693)
This act in 1916 granted assistance to federal civil-service employees during periods of disability.
Adamson Act (693)
established an eight-hour day for all employees on trains in interstate commerce.
Jones Act (694)
This act gave the Philippines territorial status and promised independence as soon as a "stable government" could be established. That actually happened on July 4th, 1946.
Victoriano Huerta (695)
In 1913 Mexico's popular new revolutionary president was murdered and _____________ became president of Mexico.
Venustiano Carranza (696)
President Wilson allowed American weapons to go to Huerta's principal rivals. One of these was ______________________.
Francisco Villa (696)
President Wilson allowed American weapons to go to Huerta's principal rivals. One of these was ______________, a combination of bandit and Robin Hood. He became the main opponent of Huerta. ________ and his followers, hoping to provoke a war between Carranza and Wilson, crossed the border into Columbus, New Mexico, and murdered nineteen Americans.
ABC Powers (696)
Argentina, Brazil, and Chile offered to mediate the confrontation between Mexico and the United States that had erupted in Tampico in April of 1914.
John J. Pershing (696)
veteran of the Cuban and Philippine campaigns. He was ordered to break up Pancho Villa's band of outlaws. His troops never did find Villa. As the threat of war with Germany loomed larger, the invading army was withdrawn in January 1917. He earned the name Black Jack as an officer with the crack black Tenth Cavalry.
The German submarines (known as U-boats) began their deadly work as World War One began. In the first months of 1915 they sank about ninety ships in the war zone. Then the submarine issue became acute when the British passenger liner ________ was torpedoed and sank of the coast of Ireland on May 7, 1915, with the loss of 1,198 lives, including 128 Americans. The _________ was carrying forty-two hundred cases of small-arms ammunition, a fact the Germans used to justify the sinking. But Americans were swept by a wave of shock and anger at this act of "mass murder" and "piracy."
Sussex Pledge (700)
The Germans agreed not to sink unarmed and unresisting passenger ships without warning. This pledge seemed to be broken in March of 1916 when the Germans torpedoed a French passenger ship, the Sussex. President Wilson informed the Germans that unless they renounced the practice of sinking merchant ships without warning, he would break off diplomatic relations—an almost certain prelude to war. The Germans reluctantly agreed to Wilson's Sussex ultimatum but tacked on a their own requirement—the United States would have to persuade the Allies to modify what Berlin regarded as their illegal blockade. Wilson was unable to do this but accepted the pledge anyway.
Zimmermann Note (706)
was intercepted and published on March 17, 1917, infuriating Americans, especially Westerners. German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann has secretly proposed a Mexican-German alliance, tempting anti-Yankee Mexico with veiled promises of recovering Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
Fourteen Points Address (707)
Wilson quickly became to be recognized as the moral leader of the Allied cause. He scaled a summit of inspiring oratory on January 8, 1918, when he delivered his fames _____________________ to an enthusiastic Congress. The first five of the ____________________ were broad in scope.
1) A proposal to abolish secret treaties
2) Freedom of the seas
3) A removal of economic barriers
4) Reduction of armament burdens
5) An adjustment of colonial claims
George Creel (707-708)
young journalist, outspoken and tactless, was made to organize and run the Committee on Public Information. His job was to sell America on the war (WWI) and sell the world on Wilsonian war aims. He typified American war mobilization, which relied more on aroused passion and voluntary compliance than on formal laws.
George M. Cohen (708)
well-known songwriter/composer who wrote the song "Over There."
Espionage Act/Sedition Act (708)
these acts reflected current fears about Germans and antiwar Americans. Especially visible among the 1,900 prosecutions undertaken under these laws were antiwar Socialists and members of the radical Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Kingpin Socialist Eugene V. Debs was convicted under the Espionage Act in 1918 and sentenced to ten years in a federal penitentiary.
Schenck v. United States (708)
the Supreme Court affirmed the legality of the Espionage Act/Sedition Acts, arguing that freedom of speech could be revoked when such speech posed a "clear and present danger" to the nation."
War Industries Board (709)
Bernard Baruch was the head of the _______ when it was formed in 1918. It never had more than feeble formal powers and was disbanded within days of the armistice. It was a federal attempt to control the economy during WWI.
Industrial Workers of the World (710)
A radical labor organization, the ________ was also known as the "Wobblies" and sometimes derided as the "I Won't Works." They engineered some of the most damaging industrial sabotoge, and not without reason. As transient laborers in such industries as fruit and lumber, the Wobblies were victims of some of the shabbiest working conditions in the country. When they protested, many were viciously beaten, arrested, or run out of town.
National Woman's Party (711)
This was a pacifist group of progressive era feminists led by Quaker activist, Alice Paul. They demonstrated against "Kaiser Wilson" with marches and hunger strikes.
Food Administration Board (713)
Quaker-humanitarian Herbert Hoover was chosen to head the ______________. He waged a whirlwind propaganda campaign through posters, billboards, newspapers, pulpits, and movies. To save food for export, Hoover proclaimed wheatless Wednesdays and meatless Tuesdays—all on a voluntary basis. The country soon broke out in a rash of vegetable "victory gardens," as perspiring patriots hoed their way to victory in backyards and vacant lots.
Fuel Administration (713)
It copied Hoover's overall plan and exhorted Americans to save fuel with "heatless Mondays," "lightless nights," and "gasless Sundays."
Draft Act (715)
This act required the registration of all males between the ages of eighteen and forty-five. No "draft dodger" could purchase his exemption or hire a substitute, as in the days of the Civil War, though the law exempted men in key industries, such as shipbuilding. It was passed in 1917, six weeks after the United States declared war on Germany.
Meuse-Argonne Offensive (716)
This offensive was undertaken by Pershing's army from September 26 to November 11, 1918. One objective was to cut the German railway lines feeding the western front. With especially heavy fighting in the rugged Argonne Forest, the killed and wounded mounted to 120,000 or 10 percent of the Americans involved. Tennessee-bred Alvin C. York became a hero when he singlehandedly killed 20 Germans and captured 132 more.
Big Four (720)
The Paris Conference of great and small nations fell into the hands of an inner clique, known as the _______. President Wilson more or less occupied the driver's seat. Also in the group were Premier Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Britain, and Premier Georges Clemenceau of France.
League of Nations (720)
Wilson's ultimate goal was a world parliament to be known as the ______________. He envisioned it as containing an assembly of seats for all nations and a council to be controlled by the great powers. The European diplomats finally agreed to make the ___________________ an integral part of the final peace treaty.
Certain Republican Senators, Lodge in the lead, were sharpening their knives for Wilson. To them the League was either a useless "sewing circle" or an overpotent "super-state." Their hard core was composed of a dozen or so militant isolationists, led by senators William Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California, who were known as ________________ or "the Battalion of Death." Thirty-nine Republican senators or senators-elect—enough to defeat the treaty—proclaimed that the Senate would not approve the League of Nations in its existing imperfect form.
Treaty of Versailles (722)
A completed _________________, after more weeks of wrangling, was handed to the Germans in June 1919—almost literally on the point of a bayonet. Germany had capitulated on the strength of assurances that it would be granted a peace based upon the Fourteen Points.