stage of the cell cycle between DN?A synthesis and mitosis. The cell continues to grow and produce new proteins. the energy acquired at this stage is used for cell division
chromatin condenses, nuclear envelope dissolves, centrioles divide and migrate, spindle fibers form, chromosomes begin to move to the equator
chromosomes (chromatids held together by a centromere) migrate to the equator of the spindle, where the spindle fibers are attached to the centromeres connecting them to the poles. The nuclear membrane and nucleolus have disappeared
centromeres split apart and chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the spindle
chromosomes reach the poles, the nuclear envelope reforms, chromosomes uncoli into chromatin and the nucleolus reforms
proteins whose levels rise and fall within the cell as cells pass through the stages of the cell cycle
when activated by binding cyclins, add phosphate groups to proteins controlling cell cycle processes
cyclin-dependent kinases (Calks)
proteins that trigger the events which allow sister chromatids to separate, and degrade mitotic cyclins
Anaphase-promoting complex (APC)
protein that senses DNA damage and halts progression of the cell cycle in G1, and is also a key player in apoptosis
small proteins produced within the human body that regulate cell growth, cell specialization as well as control metabolic processes
First developmental stage of language acquisition, in which student uses first language only, only communicating with others that speak this language. What should you do?
home language, pair students with students speaking both languages
Second developmental stage of language acquisition in which student does not participate and speaks very seldome, even in their home language. Student is ___ and ____ language, making mental connections between the new language and their home language (translating in his/her mind). What should you do?
Silent period, listening, absorbing, student is listening/ paying attention
Third developmental stage of language acquisition in which student speaks like a caveman or infant, in one or two word statements that represent a need. What should you do?
Formulaic speech, provide vocabulary acquisition assistance
Fourth developmental stage of language acquisition in which student can converse about everyday things, can ask for things he/she needs, and is easily mistaken as fully fluent. What should you do?
Social language, keep building vocabulary
Fifth developmental stage of language acquisition in which student can read and understand second language, including academic and abstract concepts
The melting process for a solid is also referred to as ___. The enthalpy change associated with melting a solid is often called the ___
fusion, heat of fusion
What does the change in heat represent in a constant-volume calorimeter?
change in internal energy of the system
What is the difference between temperature and heat?
Heat represents both kinetic and potential energy and can either cause an increase in temperature or in phase change, but temperature is just a measure of the kinetic energy in a system.
If Gibbs energy is positive the reaction is ___ and if Gibbs energy is negative the reaction is ___
non-spontaneous (make reactants), spontaneous (make products)
the belief that all earthly changes were sudden and caused by a series of catastrophes
the idea that the present is the key to the past, assuming that both gradual and catastrophic process acting on the Earth today are the same as those that have acted in the past
What were the land masses on Gondwana?
Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, South America, Africa, India
What did the atmosphere originally consist of?
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water, nitrogen and hydrogen
Where did ozone (O3) come from?
Some O2 molecules were split by the Sun's UV rays to form single O atoms that combined with O2
Why could life move out of the ocean?
600 mya, UV radiation began being shielded by a large enough supply of O3
Explain the use of correlation to fill in unconformities?
Breaks in the rock record can be filled in by looking at rocks elsewhere
name of the principle stating that in an undisturbed horizontal sequence of rocks, the oldest rock layers will be on the bottom
the period in which most of the Ice Ages occurred. What are the dates of this time?
Pleiostocene epoch, 1.8 mya -10,000 ya
extinction that killed the dinosaurs, among other organisms, and when was it?
Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, 65 mya
Earth's worst mass extinction, killing 95 percent of all species
Permian-Triassic extinction 251 mya
preservation like insects or plant parts trapped in amber, a hardened form of tree sap
preservation in which rock-like minerals seep in slowly and replace the original organic tissues with silica, calcite, or pyrite, forming a rock-like fossil that preserves hard and soft parts. Most bone and wood fossils are this
preservation in which only the carbon remains in the specimen; other elements, like hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are removed
pervation in which hard parts either revert to more stable minerals or small crystals turn into larger crystals
preservation which leavels molds and casts or destroyed or dissolved organisms
___ are important since they are found after detailed studies of rocks from many places reveal that these fossils have a short, well-known time of existence.
The Earth and other planets orbit the sun ___ and the Earth spins ___ in its axis
why don't eclipses happen every month?
the moon's orbit is tilted at 5 degrees to the Earth's orbit around the Sun and instead only happen when the moon crosses the ecliptic
stars that are always visible and that revolve around ___ in a ___ direction are called ___. They take about ___ to make a complete revolution.
Polaris, counterclockwise, circumpolar, 24 hours
stars that seem to rise and set in the southern part of the sky. They seem to rise and set because ___
seasonal stars; Earth covers part of their path around Polaris
Which planets are in the Zodiac, staying within 8 degrees of the ecliptic?
Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn
What is an AU?
Astronomical Unit, the distance from the center of the Earth to the center of the Sun, 1.496x10^11m
Chloroplasts contain ___ in which chlorophyll and other pigments are arranged in groups called ___
After glycolysis, what happens in cellular respiration?
pyruvic acid is transported across the mitochondrion and is converted to Acetyl Coenzyme A, which enters the Krebs cycle
What happens after the Krebs cycle?
protons flow down the electron transport chain in oxidative phosphorylation, in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. This produces ATP.
what organisms do alcoholic fermentation and what are the results?
yeast, some bacteria, generate ethanol, carbon dioxide and water - impt in bread making, brewing, wine making
what organisms do lactic acid fermentation and what are the results?
some bacteria, as wel as muscles of animals when they need energy faster than the blood can supply oxygen. Bacteria convert lactose into lactic acid in yogurt
How have volcanic eruptions led to global cooling?
large masses of gases from the eruption reach the stratosphere producing cooling
What is the main industrial source of air pollution?
metallurgy, delivers sulfur dioxide and very toxic dust, containing various heavy metals
why does ozone depletion occur?
release of chlorofluorocarbons (from aerosol cans, colling systems, and refrigeration equipment)
what is above the core of the sun and is the place where photons from the nuclear reactions are absorbed and reemitted?
Planets that are rich in heavier gases and gaseous compounds, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, ozone, and argon
What is Venus mostly composed of?
carbon dioxide, with some amounts of nitrogen, helium, neon, argon
What is Mars' atmosphere composed of?
a thin layer of carbon dioxide, with nitrogen, argon, oxygen and water vapor
What is Jupiter's atmosphere composed of?
helium and hydrogen, with trace amounts of water, ammonia, methane, other carbon compounds
What is Jupiter made of?
a transition from gas to liquid metallic hydrogen where in the top 1/4 of the planet, pressure and temperature strip hydrogen of their outer electrons forming a liquid metal
What is Saturn made of?
hydrogen and helium, and the ratio decreases with depth, as well as methane and ammonia, with a layer of metallic hydrogen
Why isn't Pluto a planet?
It has too much mass around it's orbit that hasn't become part of it's body. It's a pygmy planet instead.
Principle that says that a change in the pressure applied to an enclosed container is transmitted without change through the fluid and acts in all directions (hydraulic pump)
Principle that says that a body immersed in a fluid will be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid that it displaces (bathtub full of water)
The pressure in a fluid decreases with increased velocity of the fluid (air moves around the wings on airplane providing lift)
Why does a balloon stick to a wall?
Rubbing the balloon gives it a negative charge on that side that causes the balloon to push away negative ions in the neutral wall making the wall seem positive so they attract.
What is an electroscope and how does it work?
detects charges by acting as a conductor and using the charge to move the needle away from the upright support that is the same charge
What is the formula for figuring out electrical resistance?
R = V/I (R is resistance, v is Voltage, I is current)
what is electrical resistivity?
indicates how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current
How do you find resistivity?
P=RA/L (P is resistivity, R is resistance, A is area, L is length), measured in Ohm meters
How do you find conductivity?
inverse of resistivity (1/p); the extent to which an object conducts current
What is Hardy Weinberg model?
In large populations in the absence of gene flow, mutation, genetic drift and natural selection with individual mating, genotype and allele frequencies stay the same.
the evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage
occurs when related but distinct species of organisms mate at different times of day
occurws when related but distinct species or organisms exploit different habitats and resources
occurs when related but distinct species of organisms are blind to reproductive signals in each other
ethological or behavioral isolation
theory of evolution which postulates that changes such as speciation can occur very quickly, with long periods of little change in between
mutations that occur in non-reproductive cells and cannot be passed onto the offspring
the failure of homologous chromosomes or chromatids to segregate during mitosis or meiosis
measuring light scattered at 90* to the incident light for maximum sensitivity to small particles which cause cloudiness in drinking water