Genetics Chapter 1

38 terms by ejjlopez_93 

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Into to Genetics

epigenesis

posits that an organism is derived from substances present in the egg that differentiate into adult structures during embryonic development

performation

sex cells contain a complete miniature adult perfect in every form

homunculus

miniature adult perfect in every form

spontaneous generation

creation of living organisms from nonliving components

Louis Pasteur

spontaneous generation

fixity of species

animal and plant groups have remained unchanged in form since the moment of their appearance on Earth

natural selection

populations tend to consist of more offspring then the environment can support, leading to a struggle for survival among them , heritable traits allow them to survive and reproduce passing traits to future generations

diploid number (2n)

members of a species have a characteristic number of chromosomes

homologous chromosomes

chromosomes in diploid cells exist in pairs

mitosis

chromosomes are copied and distributed so that each daughter cell receives a diploid set of chromosomes

meiosis

gamete formation

haploid number (n)

cells produced by meiosis receive only one chromosome from each chromosome pair

chromosome theory of inheritance

inherited traits are controlled by genes residing on chromosomes faithfully transmitted through gametes maintaining genetic continuity from generation to generation

mutation

variation produced by one gene

allele

alternative forms of a gene

phenotype

observable traits

genotype

set of alleles for a given trait carried by an organism

bacteriophages (phages)

viruses that attack bacteria

nucleotides

linear polymer subunits making up stands of the helix

mRNA

RNA molecule transcribed from DNa and translated into amino acid sequence of a polypeptide

ribosome

ribonuleoprotein organelle consisting of two subunits, each containing RNA and protein molcules

translation

the derivation of the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide from the base sequence of an mRNA molecule in association w a ribosome and tRNAs

genetic code

information encoded in mRNA, consists of nucleotide triplets

codon

triplets of nucleotides

tRNA

adapter molecules that aids protein assembly

enzymes

biological catalysts, cause biochemical reactions to proceed at rates necessary for sustaining life

clones

identical molecules, cells or organisms derived from a single ancestor by asexuel, or parasexual methods

vectors

in recombinant DNA , an agent such as a phage or plasmid into which a foreign DNA segment will be inserted and used to transform host cells

complete haploid

content of DNA specific to that organism

biotechnology

use of modified organisms or their products

golden rice

genetically engineered strain of rice that has high levels of two compounds that the body converts to vitamin A

transgenic animals

animals injected with human genes

microarrays/DNA chips

ordered arrangement of DNA sequences or oligonuelcotides on a substrate

genomics

study of genomes

protenomics

identifies set of proteins present in a cell under a given set of conditions and additionally studies the post-translational modification of these proteins, location within the cell, and protein interactions occurring in the cell

bioinformatics

hardware development and software processing storing and retrieving nucleotide and protein data

model organisms

well-characterized genetics and easy manipulated experimentally

genome

set of hereditary info. encoded in the DNA of an organism, both the protein-codeing and non-protein-coding sequence

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