What does the study of human development seek?
Seeks to understand how and why people of all kinds and ages everywhere change over time.
What is the ecological approach to the study of human development? Who developed this approach?
The view that in the study of human development the person should be considered in all the contexts and interations that consititute a life. -Urie Bronfenbrenner
What are the 3 domains of development and of what do they consist? (page 7)
Biosocial Devlmnt- genetic, nutritional & health growth and motor skills.
Cognitive Devlmnt- All mental processes, like think, learn, judge, decide.
Psychosocial Devlmnt- Emotions, temperment, and social skills.
What is a cohort?
A group of people born at the same time who will go through life experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts at about the same age.
What is a theory?
Thories offer useful hypotheses/predictions.
What is the scientific method? Why is it used to test hypotheses?
A series of steps used to reach conclusions based on evidence. Because through a series on steps it can either confirm or refute the hypothesis.
What is a hypothesis?
an explict idea to be tested
What is replication? Why is it important?
Replication is the action of repeating an experiment several time to cancel out any errors that may have occured. The more times the experiment is repeated the more accurate the data will be.
What is the independent variable, dependent variable, experimental group, and the comparison/control group?
IV- is introduced to see how it effects the DV
DV- may change as a result of the IV (DV is dependent on the IV)
EG- group of participants in a research study who experience some special treatment or condition.
CCG- group of people similar to the experimental group in all relevant ways but do not experience the experimental conditions.
What is longitudinal research? How is it used?
16 years plus analysis, collect data five times at 4 year intervals.
What is psychoanalytic theory and who developed it? (Freud stressing our unconscious motives and drives)
Grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives often originating in childhood, underline human behavior!
What are the stages of psychosexual development?
Birth to 1 year Oral Stage, 1-3 years Anal Stage, 3-6 years Phallic Stage, 6-11 years Latency, Adolescence Genital Stage, Adulthood genital stage continued.
Who was Erik Erikson and what are his stages of development called and what do they consist of/their meaning?
A theorists who developed stages that were characterized by a challegeing developmental crisis. He named two polarities at it stage.
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
3. Initiative vs. guilt
4. industry vs. inferiority
5. identity vs. role confusion
6. intimacy vs. isolation
7. Generactivity vs. stagnation
8. integrity vs. despair
What do these eight stages of psychosocial development consist of?
This theory emphasizes the social and cultural environment.
What are the stages of Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory? page 47
birth to 2 years- sensorimotor
2-6 years - preoperational
6-11 years- concrete operational
12 to adulthood- formal operational
What is behaviorism?
Is also known as the learning theory because it also describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned.
What is the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning? (association versus behavior change)
Classical: is when a meaningful stimuli is connected with a nuetral stimuli which had no meaning before experiment.
Operant: is when a particular action is followed by either something desired or unwanted.
Who was Harlow and what did his research uncover?
All primtate infants need "contact comfort" the warm and soft reassurance of a mothers touch!
What is social learning theory and what is modeling?
SLT is when other humans can learn by observing other humans without having to experience any reinforcement. Modeling is the central process of social learning, by which a person observes action of others and then copies them.
What is nature and what is nurture when pertaining to development? (heredity versus environment)
Nature: term for traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from parents at moment of conception.
Nurture: a term for the environmental influences that affect development after an indicidual is conceived.
What is an ovum?
the female reproductive cell
What is a gamete? (sperm and the ova)
a reproductive cell; that is a sperm or ovum that can produce a new individual if it combines with a gamete from the other sex to make a zygote.
What is a zygote?
the single cell formed from the fusing of two gametes; a sperm and an ovum
What is important about the twenty-third pair of chromosomes?
Determines the sex! XX female XY male!
All other 22 are autosomes meaning they are the same regardless of the sex!
What is the difference between the chromosome pairs of XX and XY?
Male and Female!
What is the female reproductive cell called?
Every normal human body cell has how many chromosomes?
How are monozygotic twins or identical twins conceived?
twins who originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development.
How are dizygotic twins or fraternal twins conceived?
Twins who are formed when two seperate ova are fertilized by two seperate sperm at roughly the same time.
What extra-chromosome condition occurs that causes Down Syndrome?
They have three copies of chromosome 21!
How long is the germinal period?
The first two weeks!
How long is the embryonic period?
The longest period of prenatal development is the?
fetal period they are from 9 weeks until birth of child
What is the placenta and what does it do?
The organ that surrounds the developing embryo and fetus, sustaining life via the umbilical cord. The placenta is attatched to the the wall of the pregnant womans uterus.
What is postpartum depression?
A new mothers feeling of inadequency and sadness in the days and weeks after giving birth.
The average North American newborn measures 20 inches.
What sense is least developed at birth?
Note the various kinds of reflexes. The sucking reflex explains why babies suck anything that touches their lips.
Most infants are able to crawl on their bellies by age 4-6 months and walk unassisted at about 1 year (on average).
theorist to emphasize that infants are active learners and that early learning is based on senses and motor skills.
The infant's first sensorimotor activities are?
Assimilation is to accommodation as incorporating is to?
How is language development demonstrated?
(body movements, gestures, grunts, cries, squeals, and words)
What is the usual order of development of spoken language?
(reflexes, cooing, babbling, spoken words)
What are usually the first words of English-speaking babies?
(names and nouns)
What did B.F. Skinner believe about learning language and reinforcement?
a technique for conditioning behavior, in which that behavior if followed by something desired.
According to traditional learning theory, personality is molded by parents.
What is separation anxiety and when is it usually strongest?
(usually 8th or 9th month)
What is temperament? What are considered the three types of temperament?pg. 198
Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-regulation. Temperment is epigenetic, originating in genes but affected by child rearing practices.3 types- easy(laugh), difficult(cry), and slow to warm up(quiet)
What is attachment?
"an affectionate tie) according to Ainsworth, that an infant forms with a caregiver- bonds them together in space and endures with over time.
What did immunization do for child survival?
help stop the spread of diseases and other serious complications; reducing mortality rates and increasing population growth!
5 Developmental Characteristics are. . .
Mutidirectional, Multidisciplinary, Multicontextual, Multicultural, Plastic
Developmental Science is _________, meaning it is based on data, experiences, demonstrations, and facts.
Scientific Method Main Steps
1. Curiosity: a theory is formed
2. Develop Hypothesis: a specific prediction that can be tested in the form of a question
3. Test Hypothesis: Design and conduct research to gather empiracal evidence.
4. Draw Conclusion: Use evidence to support or refute hypothesis.
A specific testible prediction that forms the basis of a research project is called a _____.
To repeat an experimental test procedure and obtain the same results is to _________ the test of the hypothesis.
The question of how much of any characterisitc is the result of genes and how much is the result of experiences is the ____-____ controversy.
Genes and environment __________ every aspect of development.
Deviations from development ____ a problem. To assume so is to commit the _________-__________ error. Following the methods of _____ helps prevent this mistake in reasoning.
do not necessairily indicate; difference-equals-deficit; science
The third crucial element in the definition of developmentl science is the issue of whether individuals ________ or _____ ______ ________ over time. One way developmentalist divide life into segments is by using ______ to identify seperate stages of growth.
change, remain the same; chronology
What are the 3 Domains of Developmental Science, even with the divisions, developmentalists realize that there is a ________ connection between aged focused specialties and that all domain occur ________.
Biosocial, cognitive, Pyschosocial; reciprical; simultaneously
The approach that stresses fluctuations and transitions in development is the ____-______ approach. The word _____ captures the idea that __________.
dynamic systems; systems; change in one part of a person, family, or society will affect all other aspects of development.
Multidirectional development is humans doesnt always follow a strait ______ growth pattern. Stable characterictis are called ____ and unstable ones are called ______.
linear; continuity; discontinuity
A time when certain things occur for normal development is a _________. At a certain point during _____ ______ there may also be a ____ _____ when a particular development occurs most easily. An example of this is _______.
critical period, early childhood, sensitive period, language.
The next edition of the diagnostics and statistical Manual of Mental disorders will include more on _______ and on _____ _____. Zooming In emphasizes the effects of ______ on development. Zooming out emphasizes the effects of ______ on development.
genetics, human relationships, nature(biological), nurture(environment)
The approach that emphasizes the influence of the systems that support the developing person is called the _____-____ approach. This approach was emphasized by _____.
ecological- systems; Urie Bronfenbrenner
According to this model the family, the peer group, and other aspects of the immediate social setting constitute the _________.
Community institutions such as school and church make up the ________.
Cultural values, political philosophies, economic patterns, and social systems make up the ______>
The system that emphasizes the importance of historical conditions on development is the _________.
Systems that link one system to another constitute the ________.
As a reflection of the impact of biology on development, this systems approach was recently renamed the _____ theory.
A contextual influence that is determined by a persons income, education, place of residence, occupation and other factors is called ________. This influence does interact with the historical context.
socioeconomic status; SES; does
The "patterns of behavior that are passed from one generation to the next" constitute a ______.
Culture are _______meaning they always change as circumstance changes. Also people are influenced by ___ ___ ___ culture. Development is studied using a _______ approach that recognizes that everyone is effected by many cultures. This contrast with the older _____-______ approach that merely compares one culture to another.
dynamic; more than one; multicultural, cross-cultural
A collection of people who share certain attributes such as ancestry, national origin, religion, and language is called _______.
A group of people who are regarded by themselves or by others as distinct on there basis of physical appearance constitute as_________.
Although race was once thought to be a _____ category, it is actually an idea created by _________. Thus it is a ______ ______.
biological; society; social construction
Socioeconomic status overlaps with ______ and ________ and _____ influences all three.
The value of disciplinary can be seen in young people by _____. Studies show that young mistreated boys are more likely to be _________ if they had a particular variation in the ____ gene. However even if they inherited the _____(low,high) variation of the gene, boys who were not mistreated tend to become peaceable adults.
violence, aggressive, MAOA, low
Another example of the value of an interdiciplinary approach can be seen in research on ______ ________- brain cells that respond to ______________________.
mirror neurons, actions performed by someone else.
One of the most encouraging aspects of science of development is that development is characterized by ________, or the ability to change throughout life.
Davids mother gave him _____ disease when he was born therefore his immediate problems were______. However since he was born at a certain time he was influenced by the larger _____ context. His development continues being a testament for ________.
rubella, physical, historical, plasticity
When researchers observe and record, in a systematic and objective manner, what research participants do, they are using _______.
In the science of human development, people may be observed in a ________ setting or a __________.
A chief limitation of observation is that it does not indicate the ______ of the behavior being observed.
The method that allows a scientist to determine cause and effect is the ______. In this method researchers manipulate an _______ variable to determine its effect on the ________ variable.
experiment; independent; dependent
In an experiment the person who recieves a particular treatment constitue the ________ ; the participant who does not recieve the treatment constitute the _______.
experimental group; comparison group(control group)
In a ___________, scientist collect information from a large group of people by personal interview, written questionairs, or some other means.
An intensive study of one individual is called an _____________. An advantage of this method is that it can illustrate _________.
case study; developmental ideas
Research that involves the comparison of people of different ages is called______- ______ research design.
With cross-sectional research it is hard ensure that the various groups differ only in their _____. In addition every cross-sectional study will to some degree refelct________ differences in addition to age effects.
Research that follows people over a relatively long period of time is called a ________ research design.
longitudial; biggest problem is change in historical context, some people may leave or have an advantage by being familar with something
The research method that combines the longitudinal and cross-sectional method is the ____________-___________ research method.