AP Human Geo Chapter 3

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Cyclic movement

movement involving shorter periods away from home

periodic movement

movement involving longer periods away from home

migration

movement with a sense of greater permanence

activity spaces

regular sequence of cyclic movement within a local area

nomadism

form of cyclic movement that involves change in location according to seasons and survival needs

migrant labor

type of periodic movement that involves workers

transhumance

system of pastoral farming in which ranchers move livestock according to the seasonal availability of pastures

military service

form of periodic movement

international migration

movement across country borders, also called transnational migration

immigration

arrival of immigrants to a country, adding to its total population

internal migration

migration that occurs within a single country's borders

forced migration

involves the imposition of authority or power, producing involuntary migration movements that cannot be understood based on theories of choice

voluntary migration

occurs after a migrant weighs options and choices, can be analyzed and understood as a series of options

gravity model

predicts interaction between places on the basis of their population size and distance between them

push factors

conditions and perceptions that cause a migrant to decide to leave a place

pull factors

circumstances that effectively attract migrants from other places

distance decay

prospective migrants are more likely to have more complete perceptions of nearer places than of farther ones, which confirms the notion that the intensity of human activity, p process, or function declines as distance from source increases

step migration

migration streams that appear on maps as large, unbroken routes that are really a series of stages

intervening opportunity

additional pull factor that pulls a migrant away from his original destination

deportation

forcibly sending a migrant back home

kinship links

push or pull factors based on places where family and friends have already found success (or failure)

chain migration

occurs when a migrant chooses a destination and writes, calls, or communicates through others to tell family or friends at home about the new place

immigration waves

swells in migration from one origin to the same destination

global-scale migration

long distance

explorers

includes surveyors, cartographers

colonization

physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control

regional scale

migrants going to a neighboring country to take advantage of short-term economic opportunities, reconnect with a cultural group, or flee political conflict

islands of development

coastal cities or places within a region or country where most foreign investment goes, where the vast majority of paying jobs are located, and where infrastructure is concentrated

guest workers

allowing migrants to replenish a labor force and, theoretically, eventually return to their home countries

refugee

a person who has a wellfounded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, social class, or politics

internally displaced persons

people who have been displaced within their own countries but do not cross international borders as they flee

asylum

the right to protection in the first country in which a refugee arrives

repatriation

process of helping refugees return to their homelands

genocide

acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group

immigration laws

restrictive legislation towards potential immigrants

selective immigration

individuals with certain backgrounds or conditions are barred from entering a country

quotas

established limits for allowed number of specific immigrants

remittances

money migrants send to families back home, often a significant portion of the economy of poorer countries

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