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paleontologists

Scientists who use fossils to study the history of life before humans ______.

cenozoic

The era we live in today is the ________.

neandorathals

The _________ lived at the same time as early Homo sapiens and also had organized societies.

cro-magnon

A cave in France has some ancient prehistoric artwork. What type of hominid likely made the art?

bipedalism

What is one thing that sets hominids apart from other primates?

Africa

The earliest hominids have been found on what continent?

primates

All ______ have 4 fingers and a thumb.

3D vision

Eyes at the front of the head are important for primates because they provide _______.

thumbs

_____ help primates because with them they can grip and hold things.

Mesozoic

_______ era would be most interesting to someone who likes dinosaurs.

paleozoic

If you see a fossil fish in a museum that is labeled one of the earliest fish known, what era is it probably from?

onto land

During the Paleozoic era, plants and animals slowly move ______.

chemicals

Scientists think life developed from ______.

absolute dating

Measuring the age of fossils in years is called ______.

climate change

Past mass extinctions most likely occured as a result of ______.

prokaryotic

Cyanobacteria, which first appeared on Earth over 3 billion years ago, are _______ cells.

cenozoic

The time period that is called the Age of Mammals is the _______ era.

ozone

The gas layer that protects Earth from the sun's radiation is the _____.

cyanobacteria

_________ changed life on Earth by producing food from light through the process of Photosynthesis.

paleozoic

The largest mass extinction was in the _______ era.

salamanders

Fossils indicate that some of the first animals to live on land were __________.

oceans and underground

BEFORE an ozone layer formed to reduce radiation, life existed in __________ and __________.

oxygen

During Precambrian time there were organisms that didn't need ________.

eras

Scientists have divided the history of the Earth into large divisions called ____.

division

________ is when separated groups of a population cannot mate with each other.

separation

WHen part of a population moves away from the rest it is called _________.

speciation

_________ creates a new spieces

natural selection

Darwin theorized that individuals having and advantage due to their traits or abilities will be more likely to survive and reproduce. His theory is known as ___________.

genetic variation

The fact that an organism's offspring are not identical to the parent is known as ________.

adaptation

A characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive is _________.

predators, starvation, disease, and competition

Populations of all species are limited by ________, __________, _________, and __________.

overproduction

A spider may produce hundreds of eggs, only a few of which may survive. This is an example of ________.

trait

A characteristic that can be passed on from parent to offspring through genes is called a ____.

speciation

The _____ process often begins by a portion of a population becoming physically or geographically separated.

evolution

The process by which populations slowly change over time is called __________.

adaptation

Over time, animals may change behavior or physical appearance in response to changes in the environment, which is ________.

speciation

The process consisting of separation, adaptation, and division is ______.

fossil record

The history of life shown by remains of organisms is the _____________.

population

Members of a species who live in the same place are a(n) ________.

evolution

Slow changes in populations over time are known as ________.

hip bones

What features did whales possibly inherit from a four-legged ancestor?

fossils

Minerals seeping into an organism's remains form ______.

fossil

The trace remains of an organsim that lived long ago, most commonly preserved in sedimentary rock are a ____________.

adaptation

Over time, when animals may change behavior or physical appearance in response to changes in the evnironment it is called _________.

DNA, traits, and fossils

Scientist compare ___, __________, and ______ to determine whether organisms share a common ancestor.

sedimentary

Which type of rock is more likely to contain fossils?

crushing, melting, moving, and eroding

Environmental factors can cause a fossil to be destroyed such as _____, ___________, __________, and _________.

less than 10

Of all organsims alive today, _____________ % will eventually become fossils.

sediment, frozen, amber, and tar

Fossils can be formed by several means including: being buried in _______, the organism can be ______ very quickly, the organism can get trapped in _________, or the organism can get trapped in ____.

12

If there are 24 chromosomes in a pea plant, how many chromosomes are present in a sex cell of a pea plant?

Punett

_______ developed a square that is used to visualize all the possible combinations of alleles in offspring resulting from a genetic cross.

Sutton

________ proposed that genes are located on chromosomes.

alleles

_______ may be dominant or recessive.

recessive trait

The trait that seems to recede in the background in the first-generation offspring is the _____________.

self-pollinating

When pollen frome one flower can fertilize the eggs of the same flower it is said to be _______________.

Gregor Mendel

_________ used plants to study the way traits are passed from parents to offspring.

phenotype

The organism's appearance is known as its ____________.

genotype

The inherited combination of alleles is known as the offspring's ___________.

genes

The set of instructions for each characteristic donated by the parent to the offspring is called ______.

true breeding

When a __________ plant self pollinates, it will always produce offspring with the same traits as the parent plant has.

3 purple, 1 white

If a purple flower with the genotype Pp (P = purple, p = white) self pollinates, the phenotypes for the offspring would be __________.

3

If you cross two rabbits that have the genotype Bb, how many possible genotypes can be found in the offspring?

alleles

Two forms of the same gene are known as ______.

4Pp

If you cross a white flower (with the genotype pp) with a purple flower (with the genotype PP), the possible genotypes of the offspring are ____.

heredity

The passing on of traits from parents to offspring is _______.

chromosomes

Genes are found on _________.

telophase

In __________ II of Meiosis II, the nuclear membrane forms around the separated chromosomes, and the cell divides.

anaphase

In _________ II of Meiosis II, the chromatids pull apart and move to opposite ends of the cell.

metaphase

In _________ II of Meiosis II, the chromosomes line up at the equator of each cell.

telophase

In ________ I in Meiosis I, the nuclear membrane re-forms and the cell divides, the pared chromatids remain joined.

anaphase

In __________ I of Meiosis I, the chromosomes separate from their homologous partners and move to opposite poles of each cell.

metaphase

In __________ I of Meiosis I, pairs of homologous chromosomes line up at the cell's equator.

interphase

In __________ of Meiosis I, each chromosome makes an identical copy of itself, forming chromatids

XY

Which sex chromosomes do males have?

XX

Which sex chromosomes do females have?

sex cells

Sperm and eggs (ova) are known as ________.

meiosis

Humans produce sex cells through the process called ________.

homologous chromosomes

The chromosomes in each pair of chromosomes are called ___________________.

1

How many sets of instructions for each characteristic does a fertilized egg receive from EACH parent?

23

How many chromosomes are present in a normal human sex cell?

meiosis

In _________ four cells are produced from a single cell.

meiosis

The process that produces sex cells is _______.

mutation

Xrays, Ultraviolet radiation, and radioactivity could cause a __________.

DNA

At the end of the replication process, each of the new _____ molecules is composed of one new and original strand.

deletion (frameshift mutation)

An original base sequence of DNA, AAA CCC GGG changes to AAA CCG GG. This is known as a(n) ________________.

insertion (frameshift mutation)

An original base sequence of DNA, AAA CCC GGG changes to AAA CAC CGG G. This is known as a(n) ___________________.

substitution (point mutation)

An original base sequence of DNA is AAA CCC GGG changes to AAA CAC GGG. This mutation is known as a(n) ____________________.

skin

Ultraviolet radiation from the sun is known to cause mutations in ______ cells that can lead to cancer, which is why you should wear sunscreen in the summertime.

carrier of trait

In a pedigree, a half-filled square or circle indicates a ____________.

has trait

In a pedigree, a solid square or circle indicates __________.

female

In a pedigree, circles represent ________.

male

In a pedigree, squares represent __________.

doesn't have trait

In a pedigree, a blank square or circle indicates that the person ___________________.

ribosome

The "factory" where the protein is created is the __________.

substitution (point mutation)

When one base replaces another base in a codon, the mutation is known as a _______________________.

mutagen

A __________ is a physical or chemical agent that causes damage to DNA.

mutation

A change in the order of bases in DNA is called a _____________.

frameshift

A __________ mutation is when there is an upset in the codon grouping within a gene by adding or subtracting a base letter.

amino acid

If a change occurs in a base sequence of a DNA codon, it might cause a different _____________ to be substituted in a protein.

sex

If a mutation occurs in the DNA of ______ cells, it can be passed from one generation to the next.

mutation

A __________ in DNA could result in, a genetic disorder or disease, death, or no change at all.

amino acid

Each group of three bases codes for one ___________.

nucleotides

A strand of DNA is a long string of ___________.

ribosome

The "factory" through which the "protein assembly line" or mRNA is fed is the ______________.

proteins

The human body contains about 50,000 different kinds of _________ which are made of amino acids.

protein

All of the following are steps in making a ___________ : mRNA is decoded at the ribosome, copies of DNA are taken to the cytoplasm, and amino acids are joined together at the ribosome to make a protein.

amino acid

Each group of three bases codes for the production of one __________.

nitrogen bases

In DNA, there are four different types of ________________.

4

How many amino acids does the DNA sequence ACC TAG TTG ACC code for?

2,000

How many amino acids are present in a protein that requires 6,000 bases in its code?

GCT AGC CTA ATG

What would the complementary strand of DNA be for the sequence of bases: CGA TCG GAT TAC?

nitrogen bases

In a DNA strand, the rungs of the "ladder" are made of __________.

sugars and phosphates

In a DNA strand, the sides or the backbone of the "ladder" are made of _____________.

A = T and C = G

Chargoff's rules are represented __________.

spiral

The images that Rosalind Franklin created suggested that DNA has a(n) _______ shape.

Xray defraction

Chemist Rosalind Franklin was able to create images of DNA molecules using ____________.

TGA AGC

The complemetary strand to the DNA sequence ACT TCG is _________.

sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base

What materials make up each nucleotide in a DNA molecule?

3, codon

The code for an amino acid consists of _ base(s) also called a _______.

Watson and Crick

_________ and ________ made models to determine DNA structure.

gene

A _____ is a set of instructions for each trait, instructions on how to make a protein and a portion of a strand of DNA.

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