Rocks: Mineral Mixtures

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Rock

a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter

Rock Cycle

the series of processes in which rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geologic processes

erosion

the process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another

Deposition

the process in which material is laid down

composition

the chemical makeup of a rock; describes either the minerals or other materials in the rock

texture

the quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the rock's grains

Name one way in which early humans used rocks for.

Hammers

Rock has also been used for centuries to make what three things?

Monuments, Roads, and Buildings.

Uplift

is movement within the Earth that causes rocks inside the Earth to be moved to the Earth's surface.

Weathering

The process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock

When uplifted rock reaches the Earth's surface what three things begin?

Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition

What rock type is formed from the slow cooling of magma under the earth's surface?

Intrusive igneous

What geologic process can change granite (igneous rock) into gneiss (metamorphic rock)?

Heat and pressure

Which geologic process is illustrated in this animation?

Heat and pressure are illustrated in the animation

Which characteristic is found in sedimentary rocks?

Fossils

The melting of metamorphic or igneous rock forms what substance?

Magma forms

Which of the following is NOT one of the three major classes of rock?a. Igneous
b. Metamorphic
c. Oceanic
d. Sedimentary

C. Oceanic

Which characteristic is common to metamorphic rocks?a. Fossils
b. Gas bubbles
c. Glassy surface
d. Ribbonlike layers

D. Ribbon like layes

Which geologic process can change any type of rock into sediment?

Weathering and Erosion

One reason that weathering is important is because it breaks rocks down into fragments, or blank, from which sedimentary rocks are made.

Sediment

During blank, sediment is deposited into bodies of water and other low lying others

Deposition

Sedimentary rock can be made when sediment is pressed and cemented together by blank dissolved in water.

Minerals

When uplifted rocks reach the Earth' s surface what three things begin?

Weathering, Erosion, and deposition

Magma in the Earth's crust that has risen to the surface and cools and solidifies

Igneous Rock

Rock that is forced downward and is altered due to heat and pressure

Metamorphic Rock

Rocks that are partially or completely melted

magma

Igneous rock at the Earth's surface that is weathered and wears away

Sediment

sediment that washes down into rivers and oceans and is pressed and cemented together

Sedimentary rock

A rock at the Earth's surface is primarily affected by forces of......

Weathering and Erosion

A rock deep underground is primarily affected by forces of..........

Extreme heat and Pressure

Scientists study rocks using what important criteria?

Composition and texture

What is the chemical makeup, or mineral content, of a rock based on?

its composition

A rock that consists mostly of the mineral quartz will have a composition very similar to.......

quartz

What do the size, shape, and positions of the grains that make up a rock determine?

Rock's texture

What factors can affect the texture of a sedimentary rock?

The size of grains that make up the rock

What factors can affect the texture of an igneous rock?

The length of the time the magma had to cool

What kind of rock forms when hot, liquid rock, or magma, cools and
solidifies?

igneous

Which kind of rock has a name that comes from a Latin word that
means "fire"?

igneous

What two factors affect the type of igneous rock that is formed?

composition of magma
amount of time it takes to cool

Igneous rock begins as.....

magma

What are the three ways that magma can form?

when rock is heated
when pressure is released
when rock changes composition

What three factors affect the formation of magma?

Composition
temperature
Pressure

How does the composition of the magma affect the temperature at which it
solidifies?

some minerals in magma will freeze or become solid before other minerals do

Light colored igneous rocks are less___ than Skills dark colored igneous are

Dense

Light-colored igneous rocks that are rich in aluminum, potassium, silicon, and
sodium are called __________ rocks.

Felsic

Dark-colored igneous rocks that are rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium are
called _________rocks.

mafic

The longer it takes for a rock to cool and solidify, the more time
_______have to grow, giving the rock a(n)
_______grain.

mineral crystals
coarser

The more quickly an igneous rock cools and solidifies,the_______ the grain.

Finer

a large, irregular-shaped intrusive body

pluton

the largest intrusive bodies

batholiths

sheetlike intrusions that lie parallel to previous rock units

sills

sheetlike intrusions that cut across previous rock units

dikes

Magma ______, or pushes,into surrounding rock below the Earth's surface to create such formations as batholiths and sills.

intrudes

Intrusive igneous rock usually has a(n) _____ texture

coarse-grained

Igneous rock that forms from lava, or magma that erupts onto the Earth's surface, is called ______.

extrusive igneous rock

Lava can either erupt or flow from long cracks in the Earth's crust called _____.

fissures

When lava flows from fissures on the ocean floor at places where tension is causing the ocean floor to be pulled apart, new_____is formed.

ocean floor

When a large amount of lava flows out of fissures onto land, the lava can cover a large area and form a plain called a(n) _____

lava plateau

. Over time, grains of sand may be compacted and cemented together to form a rock called ________.

sandstone

When sediment is deposited in layers and compacted _______ is formed.

sedimentary rock

Dissolved minerals separate from water and become a natural _________ that binds the sedimentary rock together.

cement

Sedimentary rocks form at or near the Earth's ___.

surface

The most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock is often its layers, or___.

strata

Rock or mineral fragments are called_____.

clasts

Sedimentary rock that forms when rock or mineral fragments are cemented
together is called ____ sedimentary rock.

clastic

Clastic sedimentary rocks can have coarse-, medium-, or fine-grained ____.

textures

Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize out of solution, such as
sea water, to become rock is called______ sedimentary rock.

Chemical

Sedimentary rock that forms from the remains, or fossils, of plants and animals
is called ____ sedimentary rock.

organic

. Some limestone is made of the skeletons of tiny organisms called_________ that live in the ocean in huge colonies called_____.

coral
reefs

Limestone made from the calcium carbonate from skeletons and shells of sea
creatures is called______ limestone.

fossiliferous

An organic sedimentary rock that forms from the action of heat and pressure
on plant material over millions of years is called _______.

coal

What is the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers?

stratification

What are the markings on sedimentary rocks that record the wave motion of wind or water called?

ripple marks

What do we call the structures that form when fine-grained sediments at the bottom of a shallow body of water are exposed to the air and dry out?

mud cracks

The changing of sediments into rock.

lithification

silt particles cemented together

siltstone

made up of rounded pebbles cemented together

conglomerate

made up of angular pebbles

breccia

rock salt made by the evaporation of sea water

halite

a light colored igneous rock with high silica content

rhyolite

volcanic glass with no crystalline, breaks with very sharp edges

obsidian

an igneous rock with a low silica content that flows easily

basalt

one of eight basic rock forming minerals

olivine

rocks that come from the mantle

igneous

a very light igneous rock, honeycomed volcanic glass

pumice

a common intrusive igneous rock

granite

a vent for extrusive igneous rocks

volcano

Igneous rock that forms below the Earth's surface and cool slowly

intrusive

Igneous rocks that form from magma that reaches the surface of the Earth

Extrusive

Metamorphic

Metamorphic

Which rock's name comes from the Greek words for "changed" and "shape"?

Metamorphic

What kind of rocks are rocks in which the structure, texture, or composition have been changed?

Metamorphic

What force or forces can create metamorphic rocks?

Heat and Pressure

The heat and pressure at which some metamorphic rocks originally form allow
them to sometimes remain ______ at pressures and temperatures that would melt other rock.

Solid

During _, rock is heated by nearby magma.

Metamorphism

Pressure caused by large movements within the crust sometimes cause the
____ in metamorphic rocks to align themselves in parallel bands.

grains

The effect of heat on rock decreases as the rock's ________from the magma increases and its _______ decreases.

distance
temperature

When pressure builds up in rock which is located under other rock formations, ___ occurs.

regional metamorphism

Regional metamorphism occurs deep in the Earth's _____

Crust

Which of the following is NOT a property of an index mineral?
a. forms only at a certain temperature
b. forms only in sedimentary rock
c. forms only at certain temperatures
d. forms only in metamorphic rocks

B

. Which of the following minerals is an example of an index mineral?
a. calcite
b. quartz
c. staurolite
d. hematite

C.

Which of the following is an example of an mineral that indicates that a metamorphic rock was formed at a great depth and under extreme heat and pressure?
Chlorite
Mica
Magma
Garnet

Garnet

Metamorphic rocks in which mineral grains are not aligned are called.....

non foliated

the process in which a mineral changes composition during metamorphism is called....

recrystallization

After quartz limestone has recrystallized the new rock is called....

Quartzite

A rock in which coarse grained minerals separate into distinct bands is called...

gneiss

a foliated metamorphic rock made from shale is called

slate

the texture of a metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands is called....;...

foliated

a metamorphic rock made from phyllite that has been exposed to heat and pressure is called.....

schist

a sedimentary rock made of layers of clay is called....

shale

a metamorphic rock made from slate that has been subjected to heat and pressure is called

phyllite

A change in the shape of a rock caused by a force on it is called

deformation

What kind of texture does Igneous rock have when magma cools slowly?

Coarse Grained

What kind of texture does Igneous rock have when magma cools rapidly?

Fine Grained

What kind of rock is formed when magma intrudes into another rock?

Intrusive Igneous rock

What kind of rock is formed from lava that cools on the Earth's surface

Extrusive Igneous rock

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