how is the nervous system divided a. functionally b. structurally
a. autonomic and somatic
b. central and peripheral
which functional division of the nervous system keeps the body in balance with its external and internal environment?
what are the two parts of the CNS
brain and spinal cord
what are the parts of the peripheral nervous system
cranial nerves, spinal nerves and ganglia
what are the two impulses of the nervous system, both somatic and autonomic
sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent)
what nervous structures pass from the spinal cord to the periphery?
where do the spinal nerves leave the bertebral column
what arises from the spinal cord to form a spinal nerve
dorsal and ventral roots
what are the two main branches of spinal nerves? What do they carry?
dorsal and ventral branches (mixed: motor and sensory fibers)
to what areas do the ventral and dorsal motor branches of the spinal nerves supply motor innervation?
ventral: muscles ventral to the transverse process of the vertebrae
dorsal: muscles dorsal to the transverse processes, sensory innervation not exactly the same
what spinal nerve branches receive sensation from the skin of the abdominal wall and back?
dorsal: back (above transverse processes) and upper flank (area just below the transverse processes), ventral: rest
list the components of a reflex arc
stimulus, receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector organ: the muscle or gland innervated by a motor neuron
what are aggregations of nerve cell bodies in the CNS? PNS?
CNS: nucleus; PNS: ganglion
what is gray matter?
neuron cell bodies
what is white matter
what is a nerve
a bundle of nerve processes outside the CNS
what are nerve tracts or fasciculi
nerve fiber bundles of common origin in the brain and spinal cord
what is the definition of an artery? vein?
artery: blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart
vein: blood vessel carrying blood to the heart
list the superficial lymph nodes of the body
parotid, mandibular, superficial cervical, popliteal, superficial inguinal
the skin consists of what two layers
dermis and epidermis
the two layers of skin lie on the ____.
where is the skin thin? where is it thick?
what is another name for eyelids?
what is the function of the pupil
control amount of light entering the eye
what is the the flap of skin inside the medial part of the eyelids?
how can you get the third eyelid to cross the eye for examination
open the palpebral fissure and press the eyeball through the lateral upper lid
how can the mouth be opened to look in the oral cavity
grasp the upper jaw with one hand and pushing down on the incisors with a finger of the other
what are the large, shearing teeth of dogs and cats
carnassial or sectorial teeth
which teeth have three roots in dogs
last three on tip (PM4, M1, and M2)
describe the external ear canal
two parts, vertical part passes down takes a sharp turn and continues as the horizontal part of the ear drum
what is the pocket of skin in the caudal edge of the ear
what do the costal cartilages of the ribs caudal to the sternum form
what remains of the entrance of the umbilical cord
belly button (umbilicus)
how many mammae does a dog usually have
what is the lateral abdominal area between the back legs
what is the most dorsal portion of the flank
what are the boundaries of the perineum
base of the tail, tuber ischii, past the vulva (female), to base of scrotum (male) (past scrotum in cats)
where are the opening of the anal sacs?
4 and 8 oclock
what is the depression on either side of the anus
where would you find the tibia and fibula
where is the clitoris found?
in the ventral commissure of labia