Second Industrial Revolution
(1871-1914) Involved development of chemical, electrical, oil, and steel industries. Mass production of consumer goods also developed at this time through the mechanization of the manufacture of food and clothing. It saw the popularization of cinema and radio. Provided widespread employment and increased production.
Public Health Movement
Sought to remedy the high disease and mortality rate that occurred in cities. People sought to sanitize cities by creating sewage systems and cleaning up the environment
Edwin Chadwick was one of the commissioners charged with the administration of relief to paupers under Britain's revised Poor Law of 1834. Chadwick believed that disease and death actually cause poverty simply because a sick worker was an unemployed worker and orphaned children were poor children. He also believed that cleaning up the urban environment could prevent disease, which was his "sanitary idea." He collected detailed reports from local Poor Law officials on the "sanitary conditions of the laboring population" and published his hard-hitting findings in 1842. This mass of widely publicized evidence proved that disease was related to filthy environment of conditions, which were in turn caused largely by lack of drainage, sewers, and garbage collection. He also proposed the installation of running water and sewers. Putrefying, smelly excrement was worse than just revolting. It polluted the atmosphere and caused disease. Chadwick's report became the basis of Great Britain's first public health law, which created a national health board and gave cities broad authority to build modern sanitary systems. (p.792)
invented by Edwin Chadwick. disease could be prevented by cleaning up the urban environment
name for positive view of the 1870s (no major wars, industry/wealth, middle class is dominating, galleries/music halls/theartres, education, universal male suffrage)
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
a process of heating food to a temperature that is high enough to kill most harmful bacteria without changing the taste of the food
English surgeon who was the first to use antiseptics and to prevent further infection (1827-1912)
Russian chemist who developed a periodic table of the chemical elements and predicted the discovery of several new elements (1834-1907)
discoveries in electromagnetism resulted in first dynamo (generator) and opened the way for the subsequent development of the telegraph, electric motor, electric light, and electric streetcar
father of sociology; distinguished between social statics and social dynamics; published the book Positive Philosophy
the application of the scientific approach to the social world
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)
(1825-1895) English biologist, famous for his defense of Darwinism in his public debate with Archbishop Samuel Wilberforce. Coined the term "agnosticism".
Social Darwinism, believed that if society was left alone it could correct it's own problems; it tends naturally toward health and ability
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
This female scientist proved that radio-activity, when properly applied, was an effective treatment of some diseases.
British physicist (born in New Zealand) who discovered the atomic nucleus and proposed a nuclear model of the atom (1871-1937)
German physicist whose explanation of blackbody radiation in the context of quantized energy emissions initiated quantum theory (1858-1947)
Theory of relativity
the theory that space and time are relative concepts rather than absolute concepts
the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth
Honore de Balzac
French realist novelist. Chiefly remembered for his series of 91 interconnected novels and stories known collectively as The Human Comedy which pictures urban society as amoral and brutal characterized by a Darwinian struggle for power.
Frenchman who perfected the Realist novel; leading novelist of the 1850s and 1860s; author of Madame Bovary
English novelist and poet (1840-1928)
Emile Zola, "J'acuse!"
(realist author), took up Dreyfus' case and condemned the military, "J'acuse" was the famous newspaper article defending him
British writer of novels characterized by realistic analysis of provincial Victorian society (1819-1880)
Russian author remembered for two great novels (1828-1910)
realistic Norwegian author who wrote plays on social and political themes (1828-1906)
Imitated photography by painting common people on paces . Famous quote," Show me an angel and I'll paint one" (He believed that artist should paint reality not imagination)
drew The Gleaners and portrays farm women gleaning after harvest. Realist painter.
French painter best known for his satirical lithographs of bourgeois society (1808-1879); -Realist
-Rebelled against Romantic tradition
-Sympathized with poor
-Art = social facts
-Poverty and despair with working class
A nineteenth-century French painter and sculptor. Among his preferred subjects were ballet dancers and scenes of cafe life. Impressionism.
french painter 1860-1880, transition from realism to impressionism, themes, gardens, leisure, lunchtime, social activities, music, painted prostitues (olympia) and some disillusionment (bar at the folie-berger), japonesme-strong colors and dark outlines
A movement in 19th century painting, in which artists reacted against realism by seeking to convey their impressions of subjects or moments in time; An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing.
a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting
A French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting; A French impressionist painter and sculptor of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. One of the most popular of the impressinoists, he is known for his extravagant use of light and color, especially red, and for frequent use of the impressionist technique of small brushstrokes. His most famous paintings include Dance at Bouvgival and the series The Bathers.
Vincent Van Gogh
dutch post impressionist artist. painted "the starry night" 1889. mentally ill in later life. cut off his own ear. influential in the world of painting, very famous.
Pioneered expressionist techniques. b. Saw form and design of a painting as important in themselves c. Became famous for his paintings of the South Pacific where he spent some time
French postimpressionist painter who influenced modern art (especially cubism) by stressing the structural components latent in nature (1839-1906)
A French painter and sculptor of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He is known for his brilliant colors and bolt brush strokes and had a major influence on modern art.
prolific and influential Spanish artist who lived in France (1881-1973)
An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.
an early twentieth-century art movement that emphasized the artist's personal, subjective expression of inner experiences
was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. One of the most famous 20th-century artists, he is credited with painting the first modern abstract works.
A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. RUssia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed.
English nurse remembered for her work during the Crimean War (1820-1910). Est 1st nursing school. Est. Standards for hospitals. Est. nursing education, made nursing a respectable occ. for women.
Second French Republic
provided for a president and a single chamber assembly which would be elected on the basis of universal manhood suffrage. (The president would serve for a four-year term in office).
Second French Empire
the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He refused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and Napoleon withdrew.
Louis Napoleon returned for control of education to the Church, minimized influence of the Legislative Assembly, supported policies favorable to army, disenfranchised many poor people from voting, destroyed democratic-socialist movement by jailing or exile.
The 1860s are sometimes seen as a decade of liberal empire in France. Free trade policies and the progressive nature of developments in France support this. But from 1860 onward Nap was running increasingly into trouble. "L'empire, c'est la paix" (the empire means peace) had been his slogan in 1852 and yet it would be wars that would lead to the end of it all: 1850s - Crimea; 1859 - for Italy v. Austria; 1862-7 - Mexico; 1870 - vs. Prussia in France. Nap's free trade would alienate the industrialists and his intervention in Italy upset the Catholics. In the end, his empire was defeated on the battlefield. In 1920s and 1930s when dictators springing up all over - many started reflecting on Napoleon III as having been an" omen of the future rather than a reincarnation of the past."
Syllabus of Errors, 1864
Doctrine of Pope Pius IX (1846-1878) that denounced belief in reason and science and attacked "progress, liberalism, and modern civilization."
Kingdom of S-P - Sardinia is an island south of Corsica and Piedmont is in the northwestern Italian plain. These two territories were governed by the House of Savoy. Granted liberal constitutions in 1848 and allowed to retain them even though Charles Albert had been unable to remove the Austrians from Lombardy & Venetia. Kingdom of P-S under the House of Savoy led the unification movement. Cavour and Victor Emmanuel with help from Garibaldi were able to achieve this. (Note: S-P fought in Crimean War in order to get seat at the peace table in Paris and earn recognition amongst the powers. )
King Victor Emmanuel
King of sardinia, piedmont and savory until 1861 when he was crowned first king of the united Italy.
Prime minister of Sardinia (northern Italy) who vowed to drive out the Austrians and worked towards a united Italy. Endorsed the economic doctrines of the middle class. Worked for a secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria. Worked to unite Italy.
Italian period of history from 1815 to1850. the political and social movement that created a unified italy from the many different states of the italian penn.
Cavour gained a promise from Napoleon III
that France would support a Sardinian war with
Austria for the creation of a northern Italian
kingdom (controlled by Sardinia)
o Sardinia would annex a number of Italian
states such as Venice, Lombardy, Parma,
Modena and part of the Papal States
· In return, France would get Savoy and Nice
· Austria declared war on Sardinia in 1859 after
Giuseppe Garibaldi, Red Shirts
former Italian supporter of Mazzini, democratic republican whose men were called the Red Shirts, assigned to stop a revolt in Southern Italy against the Bourbon kings of the Two Sicilies and later marched up the peninsula conquering provinces, gave control of his army and his lands to Cavour to prevent a civil war
"Humiliation of Olmutz"
In March of 1849, Frankfurt National Assembly had drafted a constitution and voted to offer the imperial crown to Frederick William IV who declined it and attempted to form Prussian dominated federation of North German States. Austria opposed this and threatened force. Prussia gave way in this Humiliation of Olmutz of November, 1850. Austrians therefore re-established the German Confederation that had existed since Congress of Vienna.
Prussian economic union, removed tariff barriers between German states, in step toward political unity
a unified Germany without Austria was seen as the most practicable means of unification among various German states, particularly Prussia
Otto Von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714).
claim that God created a complete "first creation" in Genesis 1:1 and this creation may have lasted even billions of years - then during fall of Satan "first creation" was destroyed and "earth became without form and void - thus God recreated the earth.
"Blood and Iron"
"Blood and Iron" was the speech that Otto Von Bismarck gave with the belief that a strong industry and military was needed in a country to have success. The blood represented the military while the iron represented the industry of Germany.
Prussian-Danish War, 1863
Germany & Austria defeated Denmark and took
control of the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein
2. The provinces were jointly administered by Prussia
and Austria but conflicts over jurisdiction would lead
to a major war between Prussia and Austria
Austro-Prussian War, 1866
War fought between Austria and its German allies, and Prussia and its German allies and Italy, which resulted in Prussian dominance over the German States. Main campaign occurred in Bohemia, and notably utilized railroads to concentrate troops and telegraphs to enhance communication. Bismarck instigated it to cement Prussian dominance, and this ended up being the resulting case.
lower house, members elected by universal male suffrage
Lower house in Germany.
Franco-Prussian War, 1870
Bismarck rallies German against Napoleon III when he opposes a Prussian king on the Spanish throne, France not prepared for war, Prussian victory in a few weeks.
A telegram edited by Bismark to insult the French people while making it sound as though they had insulted the Prussians. This led to the Franco-Prussian wars which Prussia won handily and violently. The French people never forgave the Prussians, setting the stage for World War I.
Also known as Austria-Hungary, or the Hapsburg Empire, as it was ruled by the Habsburg monarchy from 1867 to 1918. Austria-Hungary extended over most of central Europe. It was composed the modern day countries of Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, as well as parts of present-day Poland, Romania, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Refers to the compromise of 1867 which created the dual monarchy of Austria and Hungary.
Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary
"realistic politics," practical politics, ends justified the means, power more important than principles.
"Age of Mass Politics"
loyalty to their governments, sufferage
Unified by Bismark of Prussia, the German empire was created after the Franco-Prussian war. This Empire evolved into Germany, which played a key part in both WWI and WWII.
Kaiser Wilhelm I
emperor of united Germany allowed Bismarck to make many decisions.
Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church., (cultural struggles) An exetreme church state conflict waged by Bismark in Germany during the 1870's in response to a perceived threat to German political unity from the Roman Catholic church.
Catholic Center Party
Political party of Catholics in Germany; second largest party.
Social Democratic Party (S.P.D)
Marxist and advocated sweeping social change, major threat to Bismarck.
The leader of Germany during WWI who was stubborn and was eager to show the rest of the world how powerful Germany had become.
Third French Republic
the government that came into place after Louis Napoleon. Right after coming into power, it had to deal with putting down a revolt in Paris, which resulted in the rise of the Paris Commune. it managed to quell this and although it was marked by significant problems, it proved to be the most durable of all the French Republics, French Republic started after the end of the Franco-Prussian War, which led to the demise of Napolean III, and survived until the invasion of the German third Reich. It was the longest regime from after the French Revolution.
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government.
Leader of the National Assembly in France, he ordered the Paris Commune to be crushed. He also declared the Third Republic of France, because it "divided France the least".
Chamber of Deputies
Within the French bicameral legislature, the lower house, or the Chamber of Deputies, was elected according to a very narrow franchise with a high property qualification.
Under the leadership of Jules Ferry, the moderate republicans of small towns and villages passed a series of laws between 1879 and 1886 establishing free compulsory elementary education for both girls and boys. At the dame time, they greatly expanded the state system of public tax-supported schools. Thus, France shred fully in the general expansion of public education, which served as a critical nation-building tool throughout the Western world in the late nineteenth century.
Failed right-wing coup d'etat against the Third Republic. General Boulanger, a popular French military officer, rallied all of those discontented with the Third Republic; however, just when the time to strike was right, he lost his nerve and fled France. Significance: People ended up rallying to defend the Third Republic even though nobody really liked it.
Incident in France where a Jewish captain was tried for treason because they military was anti-Semitic, and it divided the country.
(1859-1914) French revisionist socialist who was assassinated for his pacifist ideals at the start of World War I.
The British foreign-minister who advocated the recognition of Belgium as an independent and neutral state.
Britain's most important right-of-center party, in power more often than not for two centuries.
British statesman who as Prime Minister bought controlling interest in the Suez Canal and made Queen Victoria the empress of India (1804-1881).
Formerly known as the Whig Party. They forced the adoption of other reforms. A modest first step toward free public education was taken in 1833, giving financial support to private and church schools. They also helped repeal the unpopular Corn Laws.
A Liberal British Prime Minister who gave concessions to various parties and ultimately introduced bills for Irish self-governance.
Reform Bill of 1867 "Leap in the dark"
was a piece of British legislation that enfranchised the urban male working class in England and Wales.
Reform Act of 1884
gave the vote to all men who paid regular rents or taxes; by largely enfranchising agricultural workers, a group previously excluded, the act added another 2 million male voters to the electorate.
an association of British socialists who advocate gradual reforms within the law leading to democratic socialism.
1893, Keir Hardie led the Independent Labor Party that rapidly became a vocal third party. Attracted trade unionists, socialists, and those who thought that Conservative and Liberal Parties had no genuine interests in the needs of the general public.
Independent Labor Party
rapidly became the third vocal party, attracted trade unionists, socialists, and those who thought that Conservative and Liberal Parties and no genuine interests in the needs of the general public.
Parliament Act of 1911
Legislation that deprived the House of Lords of veto power in all money matters. (realistically curtails the power of the House of Lords).
Millicent Garrett Fawcett
leader of National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, demanded that Parliament grant female suffrage, knighted in 1924.
Leads movement to win women's vote (suffrage) through militant (radical, sometimes violent) means.
Representation of the People Act, 1918
The Representation of the People Act 1918 was an Act of Parliament passed to reform the electoral system in the United Kingdom. It is sometimes known as the Fourth Reform Act. This act was the first to practically include the majority of men in the political system and began the inclusion of women.
English didn't know what to do with the Irish. Whether to let them become independent or make them part of England.
social nationalist movement in ireland that wanted independence.
Irish Home Rule
A desire of some people in Ireland to not be ruled by England.
Province in the north of Ireland. Although Ireland is Catholic, Ulster has a protestant majority that opposed Home Rule. Ulsterites had no desire to become a protestant minority in a catholic majority country.
(1916) in the midst of WWI while British were distracted, a small group of Irish nationalists rebelled in Dublin over the delay in home-rule during Easter week; aroused nationalist Irish support.
"Eastern Question" "Sick Man of Europe"
The "question" posed by the Great Powers about the future of the Ottoman territories. The phrase is used to describe economic poverty in a European country. This term was coined when the Ottoman empire was in decline and increasingly began to lose territory to the Europeans through defeats in battle.
A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.
Congress of Berlin, 1878
worked out the partial division of Turkish possessions in Europe- Austria/Hungary received the right to occupy and administer Bosnia and Herzegovina- Serbia and Romania became independent- part of Bulgaria won local autonomy- Ottomans retained important Balkan holdings- also where Bismarck infuriated Russian nationalists with his balancing efforts which led Bismarck to conclude a defensive military alliance with Austria against Russia in 1879.
belief that an equal society can be achieved through participation in politics rather than violent revolution. It led to minimum wage right and social reform, also convinced socialists to reject the Marxist faith that violent revolution was inevitable.
German social democratic theoretician and politician, a member of the SPD, and the FOUNDER of evolutionary SOCIALISM and REVISIONISM.
a state of lawlessness and disorder (usually resulting from a failure of government).
Russian revolutionary, "Father of anarchy," critiqued Marxism, involved in the first international and led many revolts in Russia against the tsar.
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881).
Emancipation Act, 1861
Abolished serfdom: peasants no longer dependent on the lord; free to move and change occupations; could enter contracts and own property.
Most Russians lived in communes which were highly regulated.
elected local rural governments allow some democracy without weakening the central government.
Count Sergei Witte
Russian Finance minister who oversaw Russia experience tremendous industrial growth; reformed commercial law, protected infant industries, supported steamship co., promoted nautical and engineering schools; Russia grew enormous coal and iron industries.
(1881) son of Alex II, increased use of secret police, censorship, exiles to Siberia, Russianunification to suppress non-Russians, pogroms.
"Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Russification"
slogan of Alexander III.
Government supported attacks against Jews in Russia.
Theodore Herzl, Zionism
Austrian journalist and founder of the Zionist movement urging the creation of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. , A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
A war between Japan and Russia over the lands of Machuria.
1905; peaceful march by Russians turned deadly when Czar's guards fire on crowd, killing hundreds.
Revolution of 1905
result of discontent from Russian factory workers and peasants as well as an emerging nationalist sentiment among the empires minorities.
This was a legislative parliament in Russia with real political power.
After 1911, czar's court increasingly dominated by mystic monk Gregorii Rasputin resulting in widespread doubts about the czar's ability to lead.
characterized by establishing posts and forts on coastal regions but not penetrating inland to conquer entire regions or subjugate their populations.
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories.
Dr. David Livingston
First white man to do humanitarian and religious work in South and Central Africa. He wanted to improve people's health and Christianize them. No one had heard from him and thought him to be dead. H. M. Stanley found him.
H. M. Stanley
Found Dr. David Livingston who people thought was dead. His newspaper reports spurred interest in Africa. In 1879 King Leopold II hired him to make treaties with African chiefs in the Belgian Congo, giving control of the Congo to Leopold.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
"White Man's Burden"
A poem by British poet Rudyard Kipling commenting on American imperialism. It created a phrase used by imperialists to justify the imperialistic actions the U.S. took.
British writer who wrote of "the white man's burden" and justified imperialism.
"Scramble for Africa"
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts.
exploited by Leopold II at Belgium under the Berlin Act, Leopold was supposed to act as a trustee. He violated the agreement and stripped the country of its resources.
(reigned 1865-1909) King of Belgium who employed Henry Morton Stanley to help develop commercial ventures and establish a colony called the Congo Free State in the basin of the Congo River.
Britain Exterted force on occupying Egypt claimng it a temperary protectorate, pursuing intresets in Sudan, they claimed it was temporary but controled the the country despite Ottoman possesion.
Berlin Conference, 1884-85
a meeting at which representatives of European nations agreed upon rules for the European colonization of Africa.
a republic in northeastern Africa on the Red Sea.
Battle of Omdurman
British victory over the Mahdi in the Sudan in 1898. General Kitchener led a mixed force of British and Egyptian troops armed with rapid-firing rifles and machine guns.
General Horatio H. Kitchener
defeated Sudanese tribesman in the Battle of Omdurman. his men killed 11,000 by machine gun, while only 28 of his men died.
In 1898 England and France almost came to war over Fashoda, located in Sudan. The area was of no economic or political importance. This incident illustrated the dangers of imperialism, in that European nations were willing to fight over useless territory.
Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus.
A conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa.
1896, William II sent Kruger of the Transvaal a congratulatory telegram upon hearing of the failure of the Jamison Raid. Alerted Britain of the dangers from Germany.
a republic in northwestern Africa on the Mediterranean Sea with a population that is predominantly Sunni Muslim
a Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa.
war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese treaty to the British- the opening of 5 chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges.
Treaty of Nanking
Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain.
"Spheres of influence"
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly.
Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)
over Korea treaty that ended war gave Japan Korea and Taiwan a war between the Chinese and Japanese, the Japanese won.
British East India Company
Government charted joint-stock company that controlled spice trade in the East Indies after the Dutch.
This man was a British soldier who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Southern India and Bengal. He is credited with securing India, and the wealth that followed, for the British crown.
Sepoy Mutiny, 1857-58
Insurrection of Hindu and Muslim soldiers in British Army spread in northern and central India before it was crushed, primarily by loyal native troops from southern India. Sepoys had resented British taking direct control of Indian states. Short term cause was British use of animal fat to grease rifle cartridges which was sacrilege to both Muslim and Hindu faiths. After 1858, India was ruled by British Parliament in London and administered by a tiny, all-white service in India.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.
The French colony in Vietnam. French influence was greater in the south as they were able to westernize the culture. The much more populated north was resistant to French authority, and they rebelled while being led by Ho Chi Minh.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
Karl Marx, Das Kapital
Karl Marx's book that said all social classes should end and everyone should be equal with equal ownership of businesses.
wrote "Imperialism" in 1902 after South African war; contended that imperialism was caused by economic needs of unregulated capitalism and to divert popular attention away from domestic reform and need to reduce gap between rich and poor; became important principle of socialists and capitalists.
an alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy in the late 1800s.
Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty
Promised neutrality of both Germany and Russia if
either country went to war with another country.
b. Kaiser Wilhelm II refused to renew reinsurance
treaty after removing Bismarck in 1890
· This can be seen as a huge diplomatic blunder;
Russia wanted to renew it
· Germany, now out of necessity, developed
closer ties to Austria
· France courted Russia and the two became
The traditional British policy of thinking of Britain as separate from the rest of Europe. It turned into insecurity when the European political atmosphere became menacing, esp. when Kaiser Wilhelm II was about to challenge British naval supremacy.
An agreement for an initial period of five years, in which the UK and Japan agreed to remain neutral if either was involved in a war with a third power. If either was involved in a war with two other countries, then the other would assist.
Britain gained control of Egypt. France gained control of Morocco. But not a written alliance only and agreement. Basically against Germany.
Anglo-German arms race
Arms build up between Germany and Great Britain, greatly opposed by liberal and socialist political fractions.
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Bertha Von Suttner, Lay Down Your Arms
written by Bertha von Suttner, this book called for an elimination or at least a reduction of the arms during the arms race of the 1890's.
A class of British battleships whose heavy armaments made all other battleships obsolete overnight.
International conference called to deal with the Moroccan question. French get Morocco, Germany gets nothing, isolated. Result is U.S, Britain, France, Russia see Germany as a threat.
Second Moroccan Crisis, 1911
-rebellion breaks out in Morocco..
-French sent troops to protect European lives
-Germany deploys gunboat, "Panther" to Morocco..
-seen as threat toward French..
-Britain acts accordingly.. backs up France
First Balkan Crisis (Bosnian Crisis)
First Balkan War, 1912
Italy declared war on Turkey for Tripoli and the Dodecanese Islands - easy victory encouraged Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece and Montenegro to take opportunity, with Russian patronage, of forming Balkan League and pressing their demands on Turkey. Turkey was defeated and at the TREATY OF LONDON, 1913, lost all its territory in Europe except for area along Straits. Over final disposition of territory, Austria and Russia took opposing views. Russia supported Serbs desire for ports on Adriatic. Austria wanted new state, Albania, created on Adriatic effectively blocking Serbian expansionism. International conference supported Austrian view. Once again Serbians thwarted and Russians losing face.
Second Balkan War, 1913
Serbia, Greece, Romania AND TURKEY(!) vs. Bulgaria. The Serbs resented lack of gain in First Balkan War and felt Bulgarian received too much from settlement. Bulgarians defeated in 1913 conflict and ceded territory to Romania while Serbia and Greece gained most of Macedonia.
Third Balkan War
leaders of Austro-Hungary conlcuded that Serbia needed to be punished once and for all after assasinating Ferdinand and presented Serbia with an unconditional ultimatum where they had 48 to agree on the demands for ceding Serbia; Serbia replied moderately/evasively to Austria mobilized and declared war on Serbia.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.
Princip, "Black Hand"
Was a member of the Black Hand, the Serbian terrorist group, the person who killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife.
Germany gave Austria a "blank check". Meaning that whatever Austria did to Serbia, Germany would do as well. Reference to the full support provided by William II to Austria-Hungary in its conflict with Serbia. Also refers to the promise of support given by Russia to Serbia to develop a Slavic state.
World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.
in World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers.
In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Battle of the Marne, 1914
In Belgium, Schlieffen Plan modified, bypass Paris (circled East of city), Paris troops led a counter attack, Parisian taxis used to transport troops to the front, Schlieffen Plan halted: Race to the Sea, trench warface.
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Battle of Verdun, 1916
one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the war that the Germans came extremely close to winning until the French received support from the British who helped managed to prevent German infiltration but only after a resulting 750,000 casualties.
Battle of the Somme, 1916
A major British offensive that began on July 1, 1916 in northern France. It lasted five months with only a few kilometers of territory captured by the Allies. The Newfoundland regiment took part in the battle on the first day and had 90% casualties- the highest of any Allied battalion. In September, the British used the tank for the first time in the history of warfare. There were some 1.25 million casualties suffered altogether on both sides.
Erich Remarque (All Quiet)
wrote All the Quiet on the Western Front that exposed the grim horrors of modern warfare. He is also a German novelist.
result of WWI and new warfare, airplanes, machine guns, submarines, tanks, poinsonous gas.
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
Generals Hindenburg and Ludendorff
These German generals requested armistice negotiations with the Allies in November of 1918.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1917
Vladimir Lenin, after the Bolshevik Revolution, took Russia out of the war but was forced to give Germans 1/4 of
Gallipoli Campaign, 1915
British and Australian forces failed to take Dardanelles as a step toward taking Constantinople and defeating the Turks.
T.F. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)
British officer who helped lead Arab revolt in 1917 that allowed British army to sweep in and break up Ottoman Empire.
British naval blockade
The British blockaded the German coast to prevent weapons and other military supplies from getting through the seas. American ships carrying goods for Germany refused to challenge the blockade. As a result, Germany had a famine and soldiers were starving to death.
German submarines used in World War I.
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI.
Unrestricted submarine warfare
the use of submarines to sink without warning any ship (including neutral ships and unarmed passenger liners) found in an enemy's waters.
Archangel expedition, 1918
The Allies sought to prevent a Bolshevik victory
during Russian civil war by invading Russia from
Murmansk in the north.
2. Allies also sent troops into Siberia to prevent
Japanese control of the region, rescue thousands of
marooned Czech soldiers and prevent the Bolsheviks
from getting new weapons supplies.
3. In effect, contributed to prolonging the Russian Civil
"Total War" Georges Clemenceau
The strongly nationalistic PM of France during WWI, who helped negotiate the Treaty of Versailles. Made many demands against Germany to cut down its size and to reimburse France, which had been devastated by the war.
Italia Irredenta ("unredeemed Italy")
neutral Italy entered the war against the Central Powers (its former alllies) with the promise of some Austrian and Balkan territory.
March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.
Balfour Note, 1917
This declaration by the British govt promised the Zionist movement that it would help establish a Jewish homeland in the Palestine. This promise was made despite concomitant support for Arab nationalism in order to get Arab assistance against Turkey. After WWI Brit did not live up to its promise regarding a Jewish homeland. This not realized until after WW II when Brit turned the whole issue over the U.N. which partitioned Palestine between Arabs and Jews who created the state of Israel.
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize.
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations.
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will.
Meuse- Argonne Offensive, 1918
An offensive by the U.S. under Pershing which was part of a broader push by the allies to defeat Germany for good. Intended to cut German rail lines.
Paris Peace Conference, 1919
1919 conference at the end of WWI. The League of Nations was created. Can also refer to the 1947 treaty ending WWII.
The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.
The compromise after WW1, settled land and freedom disputes. Germany had to take full blame for the war in order for the treaty to pass, among other things. The US Senate rejected it.
This was the "war-guilt clause" in the Treaty of Versailles that placed total responsibility for World War I on Germany.
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
John Maynard Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, 1919
most significant economist of 20th century; criticized Versailles Treaty, declaring its punishing of Germany would damage the European economy; wrote Economic Consequences of the Peace: 1919.
Easter Rebellion, 1916
in the midst of WWI while British were distracted, a small group of Irish nationalists rebelled in Dublin over the delay in home-rule during Easter week; aroused nationalist Irish support.
a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the congress of Vienna.
Political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by Tsar Nicholas I.
Those in mid-nineteenth century Russia who believed Russia had a special destiny of its own which imitation of Western Europe would only weaken or pervert.
Members of Russian leadership who said that Russia needs to become more like Europe if it's to survive.
Theodore Herzl, Zionism
advocated a Jewish homeland in the Holy Land as a remedy to continued persecution of Jews in eastern and central Europe.
Treaty of Porsmouth
treaty to end the Russo-Japanese War Russia cede to J its lease on the Liaodong, Peninsula, gave J southern half pf Russia island, north of Japan, southern beijing. The treaty eliminated J's competition in Machuria.It forced other nations to respect Japan.
Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma.
Prime minister of Russia from 1906-1911. He was very involved in fighting radical groups and he also took upon himself various agrarian reforms - which he thought and were proven to be essential for the Russian economy.
Founder of the Russian Communist Party, this man led the November Revolution in 1917 which established a revolutionary soviet government based on a union of workers, peasants, and soldiers.
The party which opposed to the Bolsheviks. Started in 1903 by Martov, after dispute with Lenin. The Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI.
Supporter of Lenin who helped in the takeover of Petrograd and the Bolshevik revolution.
the revolution against the Czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917.
The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.
Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.
the political party with whom the Provisional Government had to share power with.
Army Order No. 1
A radical order of the Petrograd Soviet that stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers.
1917, surrender and end the war, only source of power was soviets, give them power, confiscate property, no ownership.
in late 1917 Kerensky's commander in chief, General Laver Kornolov led a feeble attack against the provincial government in September; his forces were quickly defeated.
the coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922.
the chief executive and political committee of the Communist Party.
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background (Soviet Union).
Secret police set up by Lenin-arrested "enemies of the revolution".
New name of the Russian Bolsheviks who dissolved the constitutional assembly in 1918.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918
Pact by which Lenin pulled Russia out of the war with Germany and gave up one third of the Russian population in the western territories.
Russian Civil War
1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.
A nickname given to Communists (Bolshevik) by Americans during the Red Scare and the Cold War.
What the SRs, Mensheviks, Czarists, and anti-communist foreign nations were known as in the civil war from 1918-1921.
in World War I Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control.
Union of Societ Socialist Republics (USSR)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Created by Lenin in 1922.