Minister of France under Louis XVI. He said that the situation (super huge debt) wasn't that bad—they just needed to economize! He was hired and after two more ministers passed thru he was hired again. He was Swiss
Cahiers de doléances
A list of grievances made by the estates general. They sought the public's opinion and expressed many enlightened ideas, but they still professed loyalty to the king.
basically the parliament of France, hadn't been called since 1614 until they finally did in 1789. Were called because everyone felt that only estates gen. could assent to taxes. When they were finally called, they came up with the cahiers de doleances.
Abbe Sieyes - "What is the Third Estate?"
The third estate was for some reforms, but against an oligarchy. They were the nation and sovereign. This specifically pamphlet written that stated the nobility were useless and should be useless.
Tennis Court Oath
on June 20th, 1789, after they had been locked out of their meeting room, the national assembly met on a tennis court nearby and swore to meet until they created a constitution. Marked the beginning of the rev.
a group of people in the estates general, primarily the third estate, and some people from first estate (a few priests and nobles), that literally gave themselves their title. Made the Tennis Court Oath (see above)
Rumors of soldiers and brigands caused this fear in the peasants. In response, they burned records and some mansions, and refused to pay feudal dues. They wanted a return to a pre-aristocratic resurgence, which led to the end of the feudal system.
Storming the Bastille
on JULY 14 1789, a Parisian mob marched on the bastille, which was a symbol of royal oppression. The governor (in the Bastille) fired into the crowd, and they stormed it—freeing all 7 prisoners. This led to the new government taking over.
Night of Renunciation
On AUGUST 4, 1789, the National Constituent Assembly ends rural disturbances (great fear) by abolishing feudalism. Liberal nobles and clerics renounce feudal dues, rights and privileges, making all French citizens equal under the law(wow!)!!!
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Written in August 1789, makes claim that all men are born free and equal and have basic rights to: 1. Liberty, 2. Property, 3. Security and 4. Resistance to oppression, 5. Positions open to talent and merit, 6. Freedom of Religion, 7. Due process, 8. Innocent until proven guilty, 9. Fair taxation. The gov't exists solely to protect these rights. Sovereignty=the ppl+their representatives
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Woman (Olympe de Gouges)
The above, however was written only for MAN not WOMAN. French still believed in Rousseau's ideas—causing probs for women in divorce, property and inheritance. Feminist Olympe de Gouges wrote the DoRoWaC (1791) in an attempt to response, but was punished by the guillotine in 1793.
Revolt of the Women
Several thousand Parisian women marched on Versailles and put pressure on the King and Queen to listen to the revolution. They violently attacked and even broke into the castle and put guards heads on stakes.
Restructuring of France
Turned from an absolutist govt to a constitutional monarchy. Became more "enlightened".
12/1789 they were essentially france's first paper currency. Originally their value was backed by church property, but the value of the assignats eventually outpaced the value of the church land, so they lose value. Regardless, these solve the problem of gov't debt.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
This is widely considered to be the biggest mistake of the French Revolution. Created in 7/1790, it decreed that the church became part of the state. This meant that priests had to swear loyalty and were paid by gov't, not tithe. Monks and nuns were encouraged to quit, bishoprics decreased from 135→83, and the clergy was split b/w state (ppl that accepted this) and refractory (ppl that stood by pope, didn't accept). Pope condemned it.
Constitution of 1791
First constitution of France. Created: 1. Con-mon, 2. Unicameral leg. assembly that made laws and controlled military (*first time king doesn't have mil. Power). People were elected onto leg. assembly by active citizenspower based on property.
Flight to Varennes
On 6/1791 king attempts to flee country but is captured at border (Varennes), and brought back as prisoner. Problem=they have a con-mon but their king can't be trusted
Declaration of Pillnitz
émigrés (nobles that ran from france) pressured Habsburgs (Leopold II) and Prussians (Frederick William III) to help royals (which they were already worried about). The two monarchs agree to interfere in France IF other powers agree to also—France sees this as a counter-revolution plot.
Caused by paranoia in recruits and Parisians. They are afraid of Austria and Prussia, but decide to take care of threats @ home first, so they massacre—kill 1100 aristocrats and refractory priests.
Jacobins (Girondin and Mountain)
A faction of the leg assembly. They went against the émigrés and refractory priests (basically the revolutionaries). Within the Jacobins there were the girondin—goal was to export the revolution to other places, and were higher class than the mtn—and the mountain—goal was to have the revolution @ home first.
War - 1792
The Girondin convinced the leg assembly to declare war on Austria and Prussia (*why? Was it because they felt threatened or b/c they wanted to spread rev?*) because they believed it would unite the country and increase its power. At first, France was losing...uh oh...
(proclamation) in July, 1792, where the leader of the Prussian army threatens to destroy Paris if the royals are harm—to revolutionaries this makes the king a traitor because he is plotting against them with other countries.
an angry mob invaded the palace and a battle took place. Causes the king to lose all power, and now France has a con-mon w/o a king! (What will they do?!)
Group of people (made up of sans-culottes) that took over and forced a new assembly. They conducted elections with universal manhood suffrage and declared Fr. a republic. These were the people that tried louis for treason and executed him in January 1793.
Literally "without breeches". These were the lower class members of the third estate. Their goals were: 1. Wage and price controls 2. Power to the people (see paris commune). They were hostile to soc superiors and hated counter-revolutionaries.
Committee of Public Safety
Group of 12 men in April 1793, that was controlled by Maximillian Robespierre. They orchestrated the reign of terror (guillotine killings) against counter-revs.
A member of the Committee of Public Safety. He was an extreme supporter of the Sans-culotte and condemned many counter-revs to death. He was a very poor man that suffered from a terrible skin disease he contracted while living in the sewer. He was murdered by Charlotte Corday in his tub b/c she thought it would end the terror (see Death of Marat by Jacque-Louis David).
Another advocate of the terror and the first president of the Committee of Public Safety. He helped orchestrate the overthrow of the monarchy, but was then sentenced to death by Robespierre for alledgedly being lenient with enemies of the revolution.
Maximillian Robespierre was the ultimate leader of the Committee of Public Safety. Known as the incorruptible for not drinking, smoking, women, etc. Originally he was very enlightened (anti-capital punishment, censorship, and pro-free trade), but his views changed. He became obsessed with stopping counter-revs and sentenced many to the guillotine. He felt he knew the public will, but he was later beheaded as a symbol of the end of the terror.
was the way that the sans-culottes controlled the counter-revs. It had many victims: nobles, refractory priests, peasants and famous people. The were all killed by the guillotine (enlightened b/c all ppl suffer same fate). Many ppl killed but it never leads to "republic of virtue" because they constantly find new victims.
Levee en masse
Universal draft in france of men of 18-25, leading to a HUGE recruitment (800,000 in 6 months) and creating the biggest army. They began to have a patriotic war effort b/c ppl were fighting for themselves and their country and everyone was involved→ French begin to win
Cult of Reason/Cult of the Supreme Being
Symbols of the de-christianization of France. The cult of reason replaced Christianity for some ppl (Notre Dame→temple of reason), but ppl worried about alienating rural catholics. SO they change it to Cult of the Supreme Being in 6/1794, but Fr is too catholic for either of these to really work. (**change of calendar happens here)
opposer of the French rev and Anti Thomas paine. Wrote reflections on revolution in France.
The overall reaction to the terror. Political pendulum swings more to the right, becomes more conservative. PPl find reaction too radical and the sans-culottes too powerful. What happens: 1. Girondists return to france 2. amnesty is declared towards pol prisoners 3. Committee of Public safety is reduced 4. Jacobin club is closed 5. Paris commune is forbidden 6. More equitable divorce laws (1792) are repealed 7. Wanted return to trad'l sep spheres 8. Vice replaces virtues (togas are out).
Conspiracy of Equals
Group of radicals led by Gracchus Babeuf that are considered first communists—wanted complete equality of property and power. These people were eventually arrested and executed (1797)
lived from 1760-1797 and lead the the Conspiracy of Equals. Large advocate of communism that was eventually arrested and executed.
Constitution of the Year III
Third try at a constitution In Paris, called year III b/c the republican calendar was est. in 1793 and this const. was created in 1795. Formed a legislative—Council of Elders (must be 40+) and a Council of 500 (there were 500 of them...must be 30+) and an executive—5 man directory. Returned to property for franchise and allowed soldiers to vote.
Whiff of Grapeshot
The way in which Napoleon Bonaparte silenced a royalist uprising in 1795
The executive of the new constitution of the year III. Consists of 5 people, but has no broad support. It lacks sexiness!
Corsican man that rises through the military. He defeated the austirans in italy (1796-1797) and sent a general for the Fructidor coup of 1797. I n 1799 he helped overthrow the directory, and he then became the first consul. (Ends up becoming emperor and huge-little-ruler of france)
Coup d'etat of Fructidor
Napoleon sent a general to execute this coup in September 4, 1797 because there were thoughts that it was becoming too royalist. Many were expelled from different councils and elections were partly cancelled.
Coup d'etat of 1799
The way in which Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the directory and established the consulate.
Consulate and First Consul
new gov't est after the coup d'etat of 1799, lasts from 1799-1804. Bonaparte is first consul; Abbe Sieyes ("Confidence from below, authority from above") is also a consul. In this gov't, power based off army and bureaucracy—leg basically powerless. In 1802, Napoleon is elected as consul for life via plebiscitary election. Main probs=finance and church
As Nap gained power he conquered many diff countries. He annexed Belgium. His client states were: spain, Batavian republic (Netherlands), confederation of the rhine (ex-HRE), grand Duchy of Warsaw (ex-poland), Kingdom of Italy (makes himself king), swiss republic (he becomes pres.)
ca 1802 created one law code for France that was later spread to all countries that Napoleon conquered. The code made: 1. All citizens=b4 law 2. Abolished serfdom and feudalism—already from aug 4 1789 3. Choice of profession guaranteed 4. Religious toleration 5. Property rights protected 6. Unions and strikes illegal 7. Women's rights curtailed **most of these already existed...
Concordat of 1801
creates peace with the church. Concordat b/w nap and Pope Pius VII. Deal was that pope can reject bishops, but no church property was returned and "Catholicism is the rel of the maj of Fr man" vs state church—caths can be loyal citizens! Nap=clear winner in this sitch.
Battle of Trafalgar
Fight with British on sea during war of 3rd coalition (1805). Decisive british victory. Like tiger vs. shark: Fr=master on land, Br=master on water, both would be crushed by the other on their respective turfs, neither can truly defeat the other in a war—only in battles.
Confederation of the Rhine
As Napoleon took over more and more different countries he restructured Europe. He turns what was the HRE into the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806, and headed it by his bro Jerome. FAR FEWER german states (16) which makes some ppl ☺ and some ppl ☹, but changes fall apart due to Nap's defeats
Continental System (Berlin/Milan Decrees)
Created to harm the economic success of Britain—no continental power is allowed to trade w/them, but they still smuggle and find new markets. This brings shopkeepers to their knees and Portugal refuses to comply—and is invaded as a result.
Peninsular War (Spain)
in 1807 this marked one of napoleon's first defeats. It was made up of guerilla conflict with opponents who believed that the Fr were godless invaders. Thousands of troops tied down?
Invasion of Russia
Resulted in a huge defeat of Napoleon. His huge army (700k) was made up of mostly non-french and less motivated soldiers. The Russians continually retreated and burned/poisoned all supplies and villages (even Moscow—known as scorched earth) as they went, leaving nothing for the French to take. Only 100k return.
After Nap's defeat in 1813-14, he is exiled to island of Elba and is replaced by King Louis XVIII. He gets bored and returns back to Fr to conquer it back (scaring the king) and is there for 100 days, but is then kicked out again and Louis XVIII is put back on the throne.
the brother of Louis XVI and uncle to little Louis that died in prison, gains title in 1814 after Nap is exiled to Elba. Nap returns for his 100 days and Louis XVIII is exiled, but then is placed back on the throne again! (omg, for realll?)
Agricultural rev innovator that believed correctly in planting and seeding deeper in the soil
Charles 'Turnip' Townsend
Agricultural rev innovator→clover and turnips=good for soil and create fodder for animals, which then produce fertilizer and meat.
Agricultural rev innovator→animal eugenics, or breeding for certain traits (ex. Breeding a cows for their ability to produce milk).
English writer on agriculture.Was secretary of british board of agr. Edited the annals of agricuture.
Conversion from old communal to modern individual agriculture. Once shared land is now divided and fenced and tilled with new techniques based on % land one already owns (really bad for ppl w/very little land)—upsets rural society.
Population Explosion 1700s
there was a huge growth caused by migration from rural to urban, lower death rate, and more kids (b/c more kids=more $). ?
prominent english abolitionist who is famous for industrializing the manufacture of pottery/chinaware. Appeared to royalty and aristocracy but also produced for middle class.
inventor of the steam engine 1769. This added to power loom and spinning mule revolutionized textiles! More reliable than ppl and can be used yr round, anywhere. Also used for railroads and steamships. All it needs is COAL (good for econ)
The first steam engine created in 1702. Used to pump h2o out of coal mines. It was too large and inefficeient to be used for anything else, and was replaced by Watt's engine.
English manufacturer and british partner of James Watt that helped install many steam engines—boosting the innovations of the industrial rev. Also applied modern techniques to minting coins
english ironmaster. Created the puddling and rolling system for smelting and producing iron. Iron could now be made directly into bars and rails from its molten state.
Women's Work Patterns
At first, women work a lot with the men, but as children become more prominent in the work force, mothers are needed less. As a result, only single women really do work, while most women are domestic and maintain their separate spheres.
The situation of urban life was horrifying, often riddled with disease, malnutrition, overwork, lack of space, dirtiness, pollution, etc. Many felt that this was b/c of industrial rev and therefore rebelled against it. Luddites were ppl that destroyed modern machinery in factories. In 1812, this became punishable by hanging. What else should I have here???
New Police Forces
Created as a result of the population growth in big cities, which caused an increase in crime. Direct sign of industrial revolution.
prisons were changed so they rehabed and transform prisoners, changes to construction of prison were made. The lack of funding and motivation put it off...criminal reform became very serious after the changes had been made.
lived 1766-1834, and wrote Essay on the Principle of Population (1798). He believed that growth in population is always greater than growth in food supply until there is a positive check (war, disease, famine). His goal to solve this issure was "prudent restraint"=marrying late, having less children
lived 1772-1823, philosophy was the "iron law of wages"=when ppl get more than starvation wages, they have more kids, which means they need more money, which raises their wages even more, and it goes in a cycle. To solve this he believes all ppl should be paid just above starvation wages.