movement in which the classical emphasis on order and rationality were rejected; it was characterized belief in emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination, and spontaneity
Idea which stressed tradition, a hereditary monarchy, a strong and privileged landowning aristocracy, and an official church.
Radical idea which which demanded representative government, equality before the law, and individual freedoms
Radical idea which advocated the idea of cultural unity among each people; this cultural unity was to manifest itself in a common language, history, and territory.
Rejection of old, deeply felt conservatism; the development of alternative ideologies
The principle of economic liberalism which believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government regulations
Iron Law of Wages
Ricardo's idea which stated that because of the pressure of population growth, wages would always sink to subsistence level; this added to Malthus's theory
Idea which began in France w/ the goal of overthrowing individualism with cooperation and a sense of community. It advocated for a planned economy, greater economic equality, and state regulation of property.
Marx's call for a radical solution to mass poverty in the industrial world. Marx said that the economic relationships between classes were the driving force in history - the "haves" would exploit the "have-nots".
Austrian prince who advocated for conservatism at the Congress of Vienna; he was strongly opposed to radical ideas.
Socialist thinker who believed that a planned society would bring about imporved conditions for the poor.
Socialist thinker who proposed planned towns and criticized family life; he wanted free unions rather than marriages, and he wanted freedom of women.
Believed that the state should set up government backed workshops and factories to guarantee employment and equal voting rights.
Wrote "What is Property?", which said that property was profit that was stolen from the worker, and that workers were the source of all wealth.
Congress of Troppau
Conference in Austria called by Metternich which allowed autocratic regimes to be maintained when they were threatened
Passed in Britain in 1815, these laws protected the English aristocracy by prohibiting the import of foreign grain
Compromise between French socialists' demands for work and the moderates' idea to only provide temporary relief; these increased employment
Wrote "The Wealth of Nations"; known as the father of modern economics; preferred free enterprise to mercantilism
Led Hungarians in demands for national autonomy, civil liberties, and universal suffrage; however, he failed, but was deemed a hero
Exemplified the "we-they" ideas of nationalism by believing that France was superior to all other nations
German writer whose works increased German nationalism
Greek patriot who led the Greeks to independence from Turkey
Britain's radical group, who fought strongly for universal male suffrage (which failed)
Published "The Communist Manifesto" and laid the foundation for a new type of socialism
Believed that each age in history was characterized by a dominant set of ideas (thesis), which produces opposing ideas (antithesis) and then a new synthesis
France's new king after Charles X fled who accepted the Constitutional Charter of 1814, though he was a disappointment to liberals
Published "The Communist Manifesto", and he also charged the middle class with mass murder and wholesale robbery against the industrial workers. He impacted later socialists greatly.
Tory prime minister of Britain who joined with the Whigs to repeal the Corn Laws
Romantic poet who wrote about simplicity and love of nature; he rejected classical rules of poetry.
best known work is "Daffodils"
Romanticized history through historical novels
Wrote Romantic novels in Paris which had romantic and social themes; she rebelled against social conventions
Romantic writer who emphasized strange setting and human emotions
most well known for the "Hunchback of Notre Dame"
Germaine de Stael
Greatest and most moving Romantic painter in France; his works were very colorful and stirred emotion. He advocated for freedom through his works
The first master of Romantic music; his music brought about strong emotions
The greatest romantic pianist; he was known as a cultural hero
Only country to have a successful revolution; it gained independence from the Ottoman Turks
Revolution occurred because Charles X did not accept the Constitutional Charter; however, it failed, because the next king, Louis Philippe, accepted it but didn't create change.
Country who tried to overthrow its Austrian overlors; they were defeated by the Austrians with the help of Russia
Country who wanted to create a unified, liberal Germany; the liberal Frankfurt Assembly was created, but it failed when a war broke out over Schleswig and Holstein
Revolution occurred here to force the government to sign liberal constitutions, but Metternich put it down by deciding at the Conference of Troppau to maintain autocratic regimes
Revolution occurred when Louis Philippe did not bring about electorl reform; though it created a republican government and National Workshops, it soon failed when class clashes led caused an uprising
Which social group supported radical ideas?