clin path LAB I quiz ch 1-3 (wkbk)

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uL=microliter

To seperate plasma from the cellular components, blood tubes should be counterbalanced and centrifuged for _____ mins at ______ rpm.

10; 2000

Icteric serum is what color?

yellow

What color blood collection tube top indicates that heparin is the anticoagulant?

green

MCHC is expressed in

g/dl

Which of the RBC indicates cell size?

MCV

The buffy coat in a spun hematocrit tube consists of

WBCs and platelets

EDTA plasma cannot be used for testing ______ plasma levels because EDTA forms a complex with it.

calcium

Veterinary reference ranges for blood chemistry values

often come with an analyzer and have been established by the company

If a test result is a false positive, it means that the result is

outside the reference range and the disease is absent

Which of the following would not be an acceptable action if a control value is out of range?

ignore the result; it is a simple outlier (sporadic results)

Calibration standards for chemistry analyzers are

used by the manufacturer

The term normal is referring to

reference ranges

Which of the samples can be frozen and successfully thawed for performing an analytic test at a later time?

serum for chemistry testing

If there is only a small amount of serum separated after centrifuging a tube of whole blood, you should

rim/ring the clot and spin again at normal speed and time

To dilute a serum sample for retesting when the value is out of the instrument's linearity range, use

physiologic saline

For hematology tests, clots in EDTA blood are

never acceptable

Regarding the disadvantages of using commercial laboratories, which statement is false?

they often do not adhere to quality control standard

What is the difference between a red-top Vacutainer and one with a mottled red-and-black top?

one contains serum separator gel and the other does not

Which statement concerning EDTA is false?

it is the anticoagulant of choice for blood gas analysis

Which Vacutainer tube does not need to be inverted after collection of a blood sample?

Red top

The total white blood cell count of a healthy adult dog ranges from

6000 to 17,000/uL

What test is usually considered of little diagnostic value?

MCH

An elevated hematocrit is most commonly associated with

dehydration

The hematology analyzer is not functioning properly. A good mathematical method to estimate hemoglobin is

one third the PCV

When collecting blood for a coagulation profile, it is especially important to

minimize vascular trauma during venipuncture

Fluid samples collected through fine-needle aspiration should be collected into

an EDTA tube

A box of reagents for blood chemistry analysis labeled for storage at 8* C should be stored

in the refrigerator

The red-top Vacutainer tube should sit at room temperature for ____ before centrifugation, allowing the clot to form.

30 minutes

Which of these tubes must never be placed on a blood rocker after being filled with blood?

Red top

Once blood has formed a clot, you can reverse this process by

there is no reversal

If you are unable to perform a CBC within 1 hour of blood collection, which of the following is the best method of preservation?

Refrigerate the sample

The mucin clot test is performed on

joint fluid

If a 1:1 dilution of a serum sample is made before analyzing the serum chemistries, the results must be multiplied by

two

Which of these is least likely to interfere with blood chemistry test results?

fasting serum

Which of the following statements is true in regard to using hemolyzed serum in a dry chemistry analyzer?

hemolyzed serum can falsely elevate some results

The Ictotest is used to determine

bilirubinuria

What information do the RBC indices yield?

the size, weight, and hemoglobin concentration of an average RBC

What Vacutainer tube yields plasma via centrifugation?

Green/gray mottled top

An elevated hematocrit can indicate what situation is present?

dehydration

The refractometer is used to determine

total protein

What mineral is found in hemoglobin?

iron

What erythrocyte index gives an indication of the average size of a red blood cell?

MCV

What term is used to describe the ability of a test to determine true positives?

sensitivity

A new in-house test has been developed with 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. What does this mean?

20% will be false negative

When the spun hematocrit test is done, which of the following can be evaluated?

total protein, buffy coat, plasma color, and PCV

Impendance is

blockage of light or electric current in analytic instruments

Which is these is not a random laboratory error?

anisocytosis

A standard solution is defined as

a control used to calibrate laboratory instruments

a QBC evaluates the blood for

Quantitative buffy coat

Prolonged exposure of serum to the blood cells before the serum is removed from the clot can result in

increased serum phosphorus

For proper calibration what solution should be used to calibrate a refractometer?

distilled water

To separate serum, whole blood should be spun down in a centrifuge at

3500 rpm for 10 minutes

When using a centrifuge, it is important to do the following each time you use it, except

open the lid as the centrifuge is stopping

As a general rule, enough blood should be collected to run any test at least three times. This compensates for all of the following, except

transcription error

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is the anticoagulant of choice for hematology because it

preserves blood cell morphology

The substance that prevents a blood sample from clotting is

heparin

What is the noncellular portion of coagulated whole blood called after is has been centrifuged?

serum

What is the noncellular portion of anticoagulated whole blood called after it has been centrifuged?

plasma

When mailing serum samples to a reference laboratory, which of these would you not want to do?

mail samples out on Saturday

When mailing glass slides, you must not

send slides with samples preserved in formalin

What is the disadvantage of using vacuum blood collection tubes?

withdrawal pressure is not easily controlled

EDTA, sodium citrate, and sodium oxalate anticoagulants work by

binding calcium

Serum should be separated from blood cells in a blood sample as soon as possible because

some chemical constituents will change

What condition will not cause hemolysis?

removing the needle from the syringe to place a blood in a collection tube

Which of the following is not a consideration when choosing the gauge and length of a needle for blood sample collection?

test to be run

If whole blood is allowed to stand at room temperature for an extended time,

glucose levels may decrease

If you are unable to perform chemistry tests on a sample for a week, you should

centrifuge the sample, separate the serum, and freeze it

Diagnostic testing performed in a laboratory setting, outside of the animal's body, is

in vitro testing

Performing a group of blood chemistry tests to evaluate the overall health of an animal is

biochemical profiling

When plasma is required for blood chemistry analysis, the anticoagulant of choice is

sodium or lithium heparin

The anticoagulant used to preserve blood glucose levels for blood chemistry analysis is

sodium fluoride

The preferred sample for most blood chemistry tests is

serum

As a general rule, sufficient blood should be collected from the animal to yield enough serum, plasma, or whole blood to run each test how many times?

3

In terms of approximate equivalents, one drop of serum is equivalent to

50 microliters

To preserve blood constituents in the event that sample analysis is delayed for 8 hours, serum or plasma should be

refrigerated and warmed to room temperature before analysis

For most blood chemistry examinations, serum or plasma samples are stable at room temperature for

4 to 7 hours

For most blood chemistry examinations, serum or plasma samples are stable at refrigerated temperatures for

4 to 7 days

For most blood chemistry examinations, serum or plasma samples are stable at frozen temperatures for

4 to 7 months

Centrifuging blood that has been collected in a plain (red-top) vacuum tube and allowed to clot produces

serum

False evaluations in potassium and inorganic phosphorus levels can be expected in a serum sample that is

hemolyzed

Drawing a blood sample from an animal that has recently eaten may result in a sample that is

lipemic

Centrifuging a blood sample at high speed for a prolonged period may result in

hemolysis

Improper handling of a blood sample after it has been collected may result in

hemolysis

Icteric plasma is what color?

yellow

Which statement is false concerning collection of a plasma sample for blood chemistry analysis?

To separate, allow the sample to clot for approximately 30 minutes, gently remove the clot from the sides of the tube, and centrifuge and remove the plasma

What sample collection cannot be minimized by proper animal preparation or proper sample collection and handling?

icterus

The technology of dry chemistry differs from that of wet chemistry in that the reagents in dry chemistry are supplied

impregnated on slides, cards, or strips

In wet chemistry technology, the amount of chemical substance in the blood is determined by measuring the

light passing through or absorbed by the final sample

In dry chemistry technology, the amount of chemical substance in the blood is determined by measuring the

light reflected from the slide, card, or strip

To verify the accuracy of blood chemistry results in the laboratory, the technician should use

Quality-control sera

What condition will not affect the accuracy of a blood chemistry kinetic enzymatic assay?

final color change of the sample

Laser-flow technology is used in

hematology analyzers

Reflectometry is used in measuring

blood chemistries

What sample is recommended for hemoglobin testing?

whole blood

What part of the CBC is the most accurate procedure?

hematocrit

What part of the CBC cannot be done manually with adequate accuracy?

erythrocyte count

What causes plasma to appear red?

hemolysis

Where is the buffy coat found on the refractometer?

buffy coats are not seen on refractometers

What is the major difference between serum and plasma?

plasma has higher protein levels

What is the term used to describe plasma that appears white or milky?

lipemia

How long must the typical microhematocrit tube be centrifuged for packed cell volume determination?

5 minutes

What measure determined the average size of an erythrocyte?

mean corpusular volume

An MCV value below the normal reference range suggests

microcytosis

What anticoagulant is used most commonly in animal-blood collection for CBCs?

potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

The values of the PCV/TP may indicate that all of the following are present except

infection

Which of the following tests is not included in a routine CBC?

reticulocyte count

Basophilic stippling may be seen in erythrocytes of patients with which of the following pathologic conditions?

lead poisoning

Plasma is composed of

90% water and 10% dissolved substances

The ability to obtain the same results, time after time, on the same sample, is

precision

The extent to which measurements agree with the true value of the quantity measured is

accuracy

The ability of a method to be both accurate and precise is

reliability

The process of monitoring instruments, reagents, tests procedures, technician performance, and the accuracy of reported results is

quality control

Controls are

solutions with known properties that are analyzed for quality-control purposes

The calibrated device used to deliver a specified volume of patient sample when performing blood chemistry analysis is a

pipette

The group of values for a particular blood constituent, derived when a lab has repeatedly assayed samples from a significant number of clinically normal animals of a given species, is called

the reference range

In blood chemistry testing, the substance on which an enzyme acts is the

substrate

The rate of an enzymatic reaction is measured while it is in progress during what type of reactions?

kinetic

Enzymes are proteins most often found in highest concentration

inside cells

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