a form of matter that has a definite volume and take the shape of its container.
a substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container
the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid
a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size
The process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas
the process by which particles escape from the surface of a non-boiling liquid and enter the gas state.
The physical change of a liquid to a solid by removal of heat
non crystalline solid where the particles are arranged randomly (Plastic, Glasses)
consist of crystals which are substances which are organized in symmetric, geometric ways (Ionic, Covalent Network, Metallic and Covalent Crystals)
The positive and negative ions crystals have properties including high melting points, hard and brittle, and good insulators
Covalent network crystals
the sites have single atoms. They are nonconductors or semiconductors and have high melting points. Ex: Graphite, diamond
these are metal atoms with a sea of valence electrons. There is high electric conductivity of metals, and the melting points differ. Ex: Iron, Aluminum etc
Covalent molecular crystals
they are held together by covalent forces, and have low melting points, are easily vaporized, soft, and good insulators. Ex: Sugar, Dry Ice
Equilibrium vapor pressure
the pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its corresponding liquid at a given temperature
Le Chatelier's Principle
When a system at equilibrium is disturbed by application of a stress, it attains a new equilibrium position that minimizes the stress.
The change of a liquid to bubbles or vapor. Boiling occurs when the vapor pressure becomes equals atmospheric pressure.
Molar Heat of Fusion
the amount of heat energy required to melt one mole of SOLID at its melting point
molar heat of vaporization
the amount of heat energy needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point
the temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure.
the temperature at which the solid and liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atm
a graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist.
change of state from a solid directly to a gas
the change of state from a gas directly to a solid
indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of the substance can coexist at equilibrium
indicates the critical temperature and critical pressure
the temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the liquid state.
the lowest pressure at which the substance an exist as a liquid at the critical temperature
critical pressure of water
liquids that evaporate readily
a dynamic condition in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system
any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties
the process by which a gas changes to a liquid.