Chemistry-Test

Created by robz951 

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Energy

the ability to do work or produce heat

Work

force acting over a long distance

Heat

A flow of energy due to a temperature difference (larger differences in particle kinetic energy results in more _____transferred)

state function

a property that does not depend on the pathway (change in energy)

temperature

measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up the sample (higher____means faster moving particles)

kinetic energy

energy of motion KE=1/2mv^2

potential energy

energy of position or composition

fuels

high potential energy (potential to release energy as heat)

system

the focus of observations

surroundings

everything else

exothermic

energy flows out of a system (PE decreases)
77 degree pool, a campfire

endothermic

energy flows into a system(PE increases)
entering a hottub, photosynthesis

calorie

amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one celsius degree

1000 calories (kilocalorie)

1 food calorie

4.184 joules

1 calorie

specific heat capacity

the amount of energy required to change the temperature of one gram of a substance by one celsius degree

First law of thermodynamics

the energy of the universe is constant

Enthalpy

energy flow as heat due to a chemical reaction

Pyrolytic cracking

breaking large pretroleum molecules to obtain a larger quanity of molecules

Heat death

work can no longer be preformed

Greenhouse effect

societl dependence on fossil fuels is the effect of the ecosystem and climate, natural process that moderates our temperature

Global warming

recent trend that increasers our temperatures explained by increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

Decay

spontaneous radiation of a particle (alpha, beta, or gamma)

Fission

result of a large nucleus being split to form two smaller ones

Fusion

result of small nuclei being smashed together to form a larger one

Band of stability

region of proton to neutron ratio, which accompany stable isotopes

Entropy

energy spread

Second law of thermodynamics

The entropy of the universe is always decreasing

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