What % of cases of dementia among the elderly is due to Alzheimer's?
60 - 80% of cases of dementia among the elderly
Whats the incidence of elderly 85 and over?
85 and over: >8% (
AD patients live how many years after being diagnosed?
Name the 3 Stages?:
Stages: Mild, Moderate, Severe
Alzheimers Association categorizes how many stages:
very mild decline
moderate decline (early stage)
moderately severe decline (midstage)
severe decline (midstage)
very severe decline (late stage)
- Loses zest for life; does not start anything, Loses recent memory, Has difficulty with new learning, Difficulty finding words, Easily loses way going to familiar places, Asks repetitive questions, Loses/ misplaces posessions, Eating abnormalities
Changes in behavior, appearance, hygiene and sleep become more noticeable, Confusion about people's identities - and which objects, Continuously repeats stories, favorite words, statements, Fabricates stories to fill in memory gaps, Abnormal behaviors: accusing, threatening, cursing, fidgeting, paranoia, physical aggression, inappropriate sexual behaviors; Difficulty positioning body for self-care tasks,
Ceases to recognize self or close family, Severe language impairments: may groan, scream or mumble loudly, Severe eating impairments : refusal, choking, impaired swallow, Compulsive behaviors: repeated vocalizations, patting objects, Incontinence, Weight loss, Intolerance to touch , Unable to walk/ frequent falls, Ideational apraxia, Total assistance for ADLs, Seizures
Intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and loss of neurons, Formation of neuritic plaques, Extracellular deposition of amyloid-beta protein
Most significant cellular changes occur where?
neuroanatomical changes in AD?
decrease in cortical mass in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and enlargements in ventricles
Mini Mental State Examination looks at?
orientation, registration, attn. and calculation, recall, and language
high likelihood of dementia is if you score what or less on MMSE?
23 or less
Medical Tx is what?
Symptom-based at this time; Antipsychotic drugs, Antidepressant drugs: SSRIs preferred, and behavioral interventions, CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS to increase Ach,
MEDICATIONS TO TREAT memory impairment?
CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS to increase Ach during mild and moderate stages; NAMENDA an NMDA antagonist for moderate to severe AD and it may delay progression of symptoms