Biology 1 Exam Review

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This set of flashcards is a review of the key vocabulary on the Biology 1 semester exam.

Cell

The smallest unit in living things that can still be considered alive. The basic unit of organization in living things.

Tissue

A group of similar cells that perform a specific function.

Organ

A group of similar tissues that perform a particulat function.

Organ System

Groups of organs that work together to perform specific functions.

Homeostasis

Process by which organisms maintain an internal balance.

Stimulus-Response

Process that helps living things respond to outside stimuli.

Metabolism

Chemical reactions that living things use to process materials.

Inference

Interpretation pased on prior knowledge and observation.

Monomer

Smaller units that join together to make polymers.

Polymer

Larger compound formed by joining monomers together.

Protein

Organic compound that serves as a building block for living things, speeds up reactions as a catalyst.

Lipid

Organic compound that stores energy, helps form the cell membrane, provides insulation and protection.

Carbohydrate

Organic compound that is the main source of energy for living things.

Nucleic Acid

Organic compound that stores and transmits your genetic information (heredity)

Amino Acids

Building blocks or monomers for proteins.

Nucleotides

Building blocks or monomers for nucleic acids.

Monosaccharides

Example of a monomer for carbohydrates. (it's a building block for polysaccharides)

Enzymes

Proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactions.

Dehydration synthesis

This process assembles (makes) monomers into polymers.

Hydrolysis

The process that disassembles (breaks) polymers into monomers.

Nucleus

This organelle controls most of the cell's functions, stores DNA, and contains the instructions for making proteins.

Ribosome

This cell organelle makes proteins.

Mitochondria

This organelle converts food energy into ATP, carbon dioxide and water.

Vacuole

This organelle stores water and other nutrients and is much larger in a plant cell than in an animal cell.

Chloroplast

This organelle converts the energy from the sun into oxygen and sugars. It is also only found in plant cells.

Cell Membrane

The flexible boundary of plant and animal cells that allows materials in and out of the cell.

Cell Wall

The rigid outer boundary of plant cells.

Active Transport

The movement of materials across a membrane that requires extra energy.

Diffusion

Movement of materials through the cell membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

Osmosis

Diffusion of water across the cell membrane.

Cell Differentiation

Different cells in an organisms have different functions or jobs.

Hypothesis

An educated guess that can be tested and is based on prior knowledge.

ATP

Biomolecule that stores energy for living things. Adenosine Triphosphate.

Photosynthesis

The process that uses sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and glucose.

Cellular Respiration

The process that converts Oxygen and Glucose into Carbon Dioxide, Water and ATP.

Chlorophyll

The pigment that absorbs the sun's energy in plants.

Aerobic Respiration

Uses oxygen as a part of cellular respiration. Releases the greatest amount of energy.

Eukaryotic

Cells which have a nucleus, are larger, more complex and contain membrane bound organelles.

Prokaryotic

Cells which have no nucleus, are smaller, less complex and have no membrane bound organelles.

Mitosis

Cellular Division which produces two identical daughter cells.

Meiosis

Cellular division which produces four different daughter cells.

Diploid

Two sets of matching homologous chromosomes.

Haploid

Only one copy of each chromosome.

Gametes

Sex Cells. Example: Sperm and Egg Cells.

Crossing Over

Process during Meiosis which helps to increase the genetic variability of daughter cells.

Karyotype

A picture which represents all of the chromosomes present inside nucleus of a cell.

XX

Sex chromosomes of a female.

XY

Sex chromosomes of a male.

Homologous Chromosomes

Matching chromosomes that contain information for the same traits. One comes from the mother and one from the father.

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