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People included on the History midterm from ancient civilizations to the age of exploration

Homer

Greatest name in history of epic poetry
was an Asiatic Greek
born in Smyrna
alive around 850 BC
tradition represents him as blind
wrote Iliad and Odyssey

Gilgamesh

An epic
oldest written story on earth
12 clay tablets
written in cuneiform
adventures of the King of Uruk (2750-2500BC)
Personality-
strong, handsome, powerful &abusive of his gifts by raping any women who interested him. 2/3 Gods and 1/3 Human/mortal.
killed beast in the forbidden forest and the gods killed his best friend

Saul

First King, chosen because of his success in driving out the Philistines. Portrayed as a tragic man

David

Sauls son in law
extremely popular and untied tribes
established the capital of Jerusalem
founded a dynasty
Jerusalem expansion
Killed Goliath

Solomon

Davids son whose mother was Bathsheba
most powerful
built a trading empire (to help his friend Hiram, the king of Phoenician City of Tyre)
built a great temple in Jerusalem
-permanent Home for the Ark of Covent
temple, wealth, and established trade

Moses

led the Hebrews out of slavery
mom hid him in the reeds along the Nile &an egyptian princess found and adopted him
God commanded him to lead the Jews out of Egypt
climbed to the top of MOunt Sinai to pray and returned with two stone tablets containing the ten commandments

Alexander

Born in Pella, Macedonia
invaded Persan empire, Darius egypt
accepted as their liberator from Persian rule
raided Indus river valley and his men convinced him to turn back
after his death empire dissolved
created an empire which marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Age
Spread Hellenistic Culture
greatest generals of all of History
conquers most of known world at time

Pericles

(495-429BC)
influential statesmen for Athens during the Peloponnesian War
leading statesmen for Athens
Was in charge of military during Pelop. War
born into a family of wealth and position
rebuilding City after war

Muhammad

born into a powerful Meccan family
orphaned at age six, raided by grandfather and uncle
received little school and started working in caravan trade as a young man
Age 25became trader and business manager for Khadijah(wife)
had a revelation
was the messenger of Allah
began to teach there was only one god
called muslims
613-began to publicly preach in Mecca
The Hijrah
630-returned to Mecca and conquered
became part of the Umma community

Hippocrates

medical knowledge and Hippocratic Oath
Father of Medicine

Socrates

(469-399)
Greek Philosopher
credited with the fundamentals of modern&western philosophy
Known for creation Socratic Irony &Socratic method
recognized for inventing pedagogy
-teacher questions students in a manner that draws out the correct response
students were Plato and Aristotle
fought bravery for Athens in Peloponensian War

Solon

(638-559BC)
considered to be 1 of the 7 wise men
was a poet, politician &lawmaker
born into a noble family
at age 55 was elected archan of Athens
wrote a series of laws and reforms
divided Athens society into five classes based on peoples annual fortune

Charlemagne

Charles the Great
Peppin's son
claim to fame:in constant warfare, great warrior, conquer territory, creates great empire
rivals Byzantine empire
revives latin learning
brings in great scholars
helps defend pope
800-crowned empire of the weat
revives trade
causes competition with byzantine empire
-main force that leads to the churches split
814- dies

William The Conquerer

known as the bastard & ______I
Norman
Won the Battle of Hastings in 1066 &Normans take over
killed Harold Godwin and crowned king
ruthless ruler
Had three sons-Robert (disinherited), William 2, and Henry 1

Henry II

king of England and controlled much of France
him&his mother were named heir of Henry I
Married Eleanor and invaded England &wins
Forced Stephen to name him heir, became king in 1154
Began Plantagenet Dynasty
established order, security and peace
feuded with Thomas a Becket
power struggle between pope (Thomas) and king
Killed by wife and sons

Richard l

english
the lionhearted
loved adventure and song more than politics
extremely brave
raised money for crusade
-emptied treasury and bankrupted empire
captured by Duke Leopold Of Austria in 1192
raised taxes and troops when returned to England
invaded France and killed in depute over gold

John I

english
good administrator
made many enemies&most unpopular of al english kings
lost most on English possessions in France to Phillip
Excommunicated by Pope Innocent III
Phillip of France assembled massive army and nobles would support the English Kings-made deal with pope
forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215
died of dysentery

Archimedes

(287-212BC)
mathematician and engineer
born in Syracuse, Sicily in the colony of Magna Graecia
His father was Phidias
lived for 75 years
attended school in Alexandria at Euclid's
Known for weapons he created, inventions in math and geometry, "Death ray" and "Archimedes Claw", hydrostatics and Calculus
Archimedes principal and formula

Aristotle

(384-323BC)
lived near Macedon, in north Greece
350BC went to study at Plato's academy
left Athens&went to Macedon to be a tutor for Prince Alexander the great
moved back to Athens after Alexander became king and opened his own school- the Lyceum
interested in science

Cleisthenes

Athenian Statesman
known for introducing system of democracy to the city
reformed political system by constructing the ten demes
believed in equal rights for all citizens

Herodotus

Born in Halicarnassus
Greek historian from Ionia
Known for writing The Histories
-deals w/ growth of persian empire
- battle of marathon
-expansion of empire&Ionia revolt
Known as the father of HIstory
traveled to many places

Pythagoras

(570-200BC)
mathematician and philosopher
born on the greek island of Samos
Visited Babylonia, Egypt and other parts of Greece
Best known for Pythagoras' theorem on right triangles: a^2 + b^2 = c^2

Sophocles

(496- 406BC)
born in Colonus Hippinus (new port of Athens)
great play writes of the golden age
provided with the best traditional aristocratic education
wrote more than 100 plays
wrote seven complete tragedies
first to add a third actor

Cambyses

son&successor of Cyrus the Great
ruled the Persian Empire
continued the politic of expansion started by his father
went with his father to the conquest of Babylonia and was named king of Babylon After becoming king of Persia, he conquered Egypt and was named Pharao in 526
madness
killed by brother

Cyrus II

The Great
Persian King (550-528 BCE)
founder of the Achaemenid Empire
clever ruler&great military leader
"father of the Iranian nation"
king of Anšan in 559
united

Darius I

The Great
King of Persia 522-486 BCE, belonging to the Achaemenid Dynasty
united Persia
organized the empire into 20 satrapies
built highways, established a postal systemhelped the economy by having coinage, weights and measures standardized
sent expeditions to neighboring regions
great religious tolerance
he completed the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea.

Phillip II of Macedon

(368-306)
ruled Macedon from 359-336BC
born in Pella
youngest son of Amyntas III
Was a hostage of the Greeks at Thebes between 368-365 and observed military techniques.
when he got out he helped his brother Peridiccas III
brother was killed in battle so Phillip took over
Father of ALexander the Great
Creator of League of Corinth
controlled all of Greece

The Gracchi

Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus
tried to reform Rome's social and political structure to help the lower classes
led to the decline and eventual fall of the Roman Republic
The period of the decline of the Roman Republic begins with them meeting their bloody ends and ends with the assassination of Caesar

Attila

the Hun
ruler of the Huns
leader of the Hunnic Empire
invaded Italy in 451
built up imperial confederacy in central Europe
when he died Huns lost power

Gutenberg

1456-printed the first complete edition of the bible
The printing revolution
by 1500 more than 20 million volumes were copied
printed books were cheaper and easier to produce
made the bible readily available to many people and advanced everyones knowledge

Henry VIII

Defender of Faith
Needed to Divorce Catherine of Aragon
Began the Protestant Church in England
Had Six Wives
English King
embraced Protestantism

Machiavelli

wrote a different kind of handbook
The Prince-published in 1513
guide to rulers on how to gain and maintain power
urged rulers to use whatever methods necessary to achieve their goals

Peter

First Pope
One of Jesus' original disciples (right hand
one of the founders of Christianity

Paul

developed christian theology
hated christians &helped execute Apostle Steven, had an epiphany
immediately converted
most important person
spread christianity by way of his letters
wrote Episitles

Abraham

established a covent with god
father of the jews
Abrahamic religions

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