What is/are the species responsible for Zygomycoses (Mucormycosis)? What is their structure and function?
Rhizopus, Absidia, & Mucor
Aseptate hypae that produce sporangia
What are some predisposing factors for Zygomycoses?
Immunosuppresion, diabetes, and burns
What is the most common form of Zygomycoses? What are the symptoms?What types of patients is this disease mainly found in?
Symptoms of congestion, blood-tinged rhinorrhea, tender sinuses, headache and fever
Primarily in DIABETIC patients
How would one diagnose and treat Zygomycoses?
Via tissue section and observation of HYPHAE (ASEPTATE) that are branching at RIGHT ANGLES (90)
Treated with Amphotericin B
What differentiates Zygomycoses from Aspergillus in culture?
Zygomycoses = ASEPTATE hyphae bend at 90 degrees
Aspergillus = SEPTATE hyphae bend at 45 degrees
What is the normal form of Candida? What is the disease form?
Normal = yeast form
Disease = pseudohyphae or hyphae form
What the primary causative agent of candidiasis?
What is the clinical presentation of Oral Candidiasis (Thrush)?
Diffuse erythema and white patches that appear as lesions on the surface of the buccal mucosa, tongue, throat, and gums.
How would one diagnose Thrush?
Direct observation of Candida
What is the treatment for Thrush?
Oral formuations (mouth washes or lozenges)
Nystatin and Azole compounds
What are the dimorphic organisms associated with systemic mycosis? What are their environment and tissue forms?
Environment = MOLD
Tissue = YEAST
What is the non-dimorphic organism associated with systemic mycosis? What is its structure and form?
What is the primary transmission route and infection that leads to systemic mycoses?
Pulmonary infection via inhalation of fungal elements
What area of the US is Histoplasmosis most prevalent?
Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys
What is the organism responsible for Histoplasmosis, and where is it found?
Found in soil containing a high nitrogen count
What is the unique characteristic that signifies macroconidia of H. capsulatum?
A characteristic tuberculate (round bump) appearance
What is unique about the pathogenesis of H. capsulatum?
Able to resist microbial activity of the macrophage and replicate INSIDE these cells
True or False
95% of Histoplasmosis patients display some form of symptom
False (95% asymptomatic)
What bacterial infection does pulmonary histoplasmosis most resemble?
What is the diagnosis method of choice for Histoplasmosis?
Direct observation of organisms in tissues or sputum samples (YEAST form)
Serology utilizing IgG and IgM antibodies that recognize YEAST antigens of H. capsulatum
What is the treatment for Histoplasmosis?
(Suppressive AZOLE therapy for AIDS patients)
In what area of the US is Blastomycosis most prevalent?
Ohio and Mississippi River valleys
Missouri and Arkansas River basins
What is the causative agent of Blastomycosis? What is unique about its structure?
Has a VERY LARGE size and VERY THICK cell wall
What is the most frequent dissemination site of Blastomyces dermatitidis?
Skin (get ulcerative lesions)
What is the primary diagnosis method and treatment of Blastomycosis?
Diagnosis via observation of sputum or biopsy material
Treatment via Amphotericin B
What is unique about the prevalence of Paracoccidioidomycosis?
90% of clinical disease occurs in men
What is the causative agent responsible for Paracoccidioidimycosis? What is unique about its structure?
LARGE yeast covered with MULTIPLE BUDS ("ship wheel" or "Mickey Mouse ears" look)
What is the diagnosis technique and treatment for Paracoccidioidimycosis?
Direct observation, cultivation, and serology
Treat with Amphotericin B
In what area is Coccidioidomycosis most prevalent?
San Joaquin Valley of California and in southern Arizona
What is the causative agent of Coccidioidomycosis? What is unique about its pathogenesis?
Following inhalation by humans (or animals) the fungus converts to its tissue phase: SPHERULE
(a multinucleated structure)
True or False
95% of patients with Coccidioidomycosis display no symptoms
False (60% display no symptoms)
What are the symptoms of Coccidioidomycosis?
Fever, cough, night sweats, malaise, and chest pain
What is the most severe disease that come out of Coccidioidomycosis?
How does one diagnose and treat Coccidioidomycosis?
Diagnose with direct observation of the distince spherule form in sputum or biopsy
Treat with Amphotericin B
What is the predominate form of fungal meningitis? From what source does it primarily come from?
Organism is abundant in soil contaminated with bird droppings
What is the organism responsible for Cryptococcosis? What is its structure?
Encapsulated yeast with a thick polysaccharide capsule
What is the most commonly recognized form of cryptococcal disease?
What is the diagnosis and treatment for Cryptococcosis?
Direct observation of organism utilizing the INDIA INK STAIN
Treat with Amphotericin B (suppressive azole therapy for AIDS patients)
What patient group is Pneumocystis Carinii Pneuomonia (PCP) exclusively found in?
What is the causative agent of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP)? What is unique about their structure?
Pneumocystis carinii (AKA Pneumocystis jiroveci)
Exist in a "trophozoites" form and a cyst form, and contain multiple "sporozoites" (can observe all these forms in patient tissue)
What symptoms characterize PCP?
Dyspnea, nonproductive cough, and fever
How is infection with P. carinii/jiroveci initiated?
Initiated through inhalation of the CYST form
What is the diagnosis and treatment of P. Carinii Pneumonia (PCP)?
Diagnose through specialized staining to reveal three forms
Treat with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole compounds (interfere with folate synthesis) and suppressive therapy for AIDS patients
What is/are the causative agent(s) for Aspergillosis? What is unique about the strucutre?
Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus
Exist as filamentous mold releasing conida, but HYPHAL GROWTH is what causes disease
What are Aspergillomas?
"Fungus balls" that occur when pre-existing lung lesions become secondarily infected with Aspergillus
What is unique about the lesions formed by Aspergillus?
Radiologically the space-occupying lesions MOVE as the patient changes position
In what types of patients does Invasive/Disseminated Infection with Aspergillus occur?
How does one diagnose and treat Aspergillosis?
Diagnose via direct observation of SEPTATE hyphae at a 45 DEGREE angle
Treat with Amphotericin B