# Stat Chap 3

## 12 terms · Elementary Statistics-Johnson/Kuby

### bivariate data

data collected on two variables for each individual in a study

### contingency table

a two-way frequency tables, a cross-tabulation table that summarizes two variables of interest and their relationship.

### input variable

independent variable

### output variable

dependent variable

### scatter diagram

A plot of all the ordered pairs of bivariate data on a coordinate axis system

### perfect linear correlation

all points lie in a straight line

### coefficient of linear correlation

A number from -1 to +1, denoted by r, that measures the strength and direction of a linear relationship, if any, between two sets of data.

### Pearson's product moment formula

the equation used to find the value of the linear correlation coefficient, r

### causation

A cause and effect relationship in which one variable controls the changes in another variable.

### lurking variable

a variable that is not explicitly part of a model but affects the way the variables in the model appear to be related

### regression analysis

A mathematical approach for fitting an equation to a set of data.

### least squares method

determining the line of best fit by minimizing the sum of the squares of the vertical distances between the actual y values and the predicted y values