NUR 120 (Unit 2) Alterations in the Musculskeletal System VOCAB

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Mrs. Manankil Nur 120 CCTC Spring 2012 Brunner's Ch 54, 66, 67, 68, 69

ankylosis:

fixation or immobility of a joint

arthritis:

inflammation of a joint

arthroplasty:

replacement of a joint

osteoarthritis:

degenerative joint disease

osteophyte:

a bony outgrowth or protuberance; bone spur

pannus:

proliferation of newly formed synovial tissue infiltrated with inflammatory cells

rheumatic diseases:

numerous disorders affecting skeletal muscles, bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and joints

rheumatoid arthritis:

autoimmune disease of unknown origin

subchondral bone:

bony plate that supports the articular cartilage

tophi:

accumulation of crystalline deposits in articular
surfaces, bones, soft tissue, and cartilage

atonic:

without tone; denervated muscle that atrophies

atrophy:

shrinkage-like decrease in the size of a muscle

bursa:

fluid-filled sac found in connective tissue, usually in the area of joints

callus:

cartilaginous/fibrous tissue at fracture site

cancellous bone:

latticelike bone structure; trabecular bone

cartilage:

tough, elastic, avascular tissue at ends of bone

clonus:

rhythmic contraction of muscle

contracture:

abnormal shortening of muscle or joint, or
both; fibrosis

cortical bone:

compact bone

crepitus:

grating or crackling sound or sensation; may occur with movement of ends of a broken bone or irregular joint surface

diaphysis:

shaft of long bone

effusion:

excess fluid in joint

endosteum:

a thin, vascular membrane covering the marrow cavity of long bones and the spaces in cancellous bone

epiphysis:

end of long bone

fascia (epimysium):

fibrous tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles

fasciculation:

involuntary twitch of muscle fibers

flaccid:

limp; without muscle tone

hypertrophy:

enlargement; increase in size of muscle isometric contraction: muscle tension increased, length unchanged, no joint motion

isotonic contraction:

muscle tension unchanged, muscle shortened, joint moved

joint:

area where bone ends meet; provides for motion and flexibility

joint capsule:

fibrous tissue that encloses bone ends and other joint surfaces

kyphosis:

increase in the convex curvature of the spine

lamellae:

mature compact bone structures that form concentric rings of bone matrix; lamellar bone

ligament:

fibrous band connecting bones

lordosis:

increase in lumbar curvature of the spine

ossification:

process in which minerals (calcium) are deposited in bone matrix

osteoblast:

bone-forming cell

osteoclast:

bone resorption cell

osteocyte:

mature bone cell

osteogenesis:

bone formation

osteon:

microscopic functional bone unit

paresthesia:

abnormal sensation (eg, burning, tingling,
numbness)

periosteum:

fibrous connective tissue covering bone

remodeling:

process that ensures bone maintenance
through simultaneous bone resorption and formation

resorption:

removal/destruction of tissue, such as bone

scoliosis:

lateral curving of the spine

spastic:

having greater-than-normal muscle tone

synovium:

membrane in joint that secretes lubricating fluid

tendon:

cord of fibrous tissue connecting muscle to bone

tone (tonus):

normal tension (resistance to stretch) in resting muscle

trabeculae:

latticelike bone structure; cancellous bone

abduction:

movement away from the center or median line of the body

adduction:

movement toward the center or median line of the body

avascular necrosis:

death of tissue due to insufficient blood supply

brace:

externally applied device to support the body or a body part, control movement, and prevent injury

cast:

rigid external immobilizing device molded to contours of body part

cast syndrome:

psychological (claustrophobic reaction) or physiologic (superior mesenteric artery syndrome) responses to confinement in body cast

continuous passive motion (CPM) device:

a device that promotes range of motion, circulation, and healing

edema:

soft tissue swelling due to fluid accumulation

external fixator:

external metal frame attached to bone fragments to stabilize them

fracture:

a break in the continuity of the bone

heterotopic ossification:

misplaced formation of bone

neurovascular status:

neurologic (motor and sensory components) and circulatory functioning of a body part

open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF):

open surgical procedure to repair and stabilize a fracture

osteomyelitis:

infection of the bone

osteotomy:

surgical cutting of bone

sling:

bandage used to support an arm

splint:

device designed specifically to support and immobilize a body part in a desired position

traction:

application of a pulling force to a part of the body

trapeze:

overhead assistive device to promote patient mobility in bed

bursitis:

inflammation of a fluid-filled sac in a joint

contracture:

abnormal shortening of muscle or fibrosis of
joint structures

involucrum:

new bone growth around a sequestrum

radiculopathy:

disease of a nerve root

sciatica:

sciatic nerve pain; pain travels down back of thigh
into foot

sequestrum:

dead bone in abscess cavity

tendinitis:

inflammation of muscle tendons

allograft:

tissue harvested from a donor for use in another person

amputation:

removal of a body part, usually a limb or part of a limb

arthroscope:

surgical scope injected into the joint to examine or repair

autograft:

tissue harvested from one area of the body and used for transplantation to another area of the same body

avascular necrosis:

death of tissue secondary to a decrease or lack of perfusion

contusion:

blunt force injury to soft tissue

crepitus:

a grating sound or sensation by rubbing bony fragments together

débridement:

surgical removal of contaminated and devitalized tissues and foreign material

delayed union:

prolongation of expected healing time for a fracture

disarticulation:

amputation through a joint

dislocation:

complete separation of joint surfaces

fracture:

a break in the continuity of a bone

fracture reduction:

restoration of fracture fragments into anatomic alignment

malunion:

healing of a fractured bone in a malaligned position

nonunion:

failure of fractured bones to heal together

phantom limb pain:

pain perceived in an amputated section

RICE:

acronym for rest, ice, compression, elevation

sprain:

an injury to ligaments and muscles and other soft tissues at a joint

strain:

a musculotendinous stress injury

subluxation:

partial separation of joint surfaces

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