when trees and crops are planted together, creating a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between them.
the raising of fish and other aquatic species in captivity for harvest.
a fishing technique in which the ocean floor is literally scraped by heavy nets that smash everything in their path. This is very detremental to the ecosystem.
any other species of fish, mammals, or birds that are caught that are not the target organism.
fish farming in which fish are caught in the wild and not raised in captivity for consumption.
the removal of all of the trees in an area
the management or regulation of a resource so that its use does not exceed the capacity of the resource to regenerate itself.
the day-to-day use of environmental resources as food, clothing, and housing.
a process in which rows of crops are plowed across the hillside; this prevents the erosion that can occur when rows are cut up and down on a slope.
the removal of trees for agricultural purposes or purposes of exportation.
nets that are dragged through the water and indiscriminately catch everything in their path.
the value of natural resources.
the industry or occupation devoted to the catching, processing, or selling of fish, shellfish, or other aquatic animals
open or forested areas built at the outer edge of a city.
smoldering fires that take place in bogs or swamps and can burn underground for days or weeks. Originating from surface fires, ground fires are difficult to detect and extinguish.
intercropping (strip cropping)
the practice of planting bands of different crops across a hillside.
in fishing, the use of long lines that have baited hooks and will be taken by numerous aquatic organisms.
poor nutrition that results from an insufficient or poorly balanced diet.
an area in which a particular mineral is concentrated
the excavation of the Earth for the purpose of extracting ore or minerals.
when just one type of plant is planted in a large area.
biotic and abiotic natural ecosystems.
resources that are often formed by very slow geologic processes, so we consider them incapable of being regenerated within the realm of human existence.
refers to when farmers plant seeds without using a plow to turn the soil.
old growth forest
one that has never been cut; these forests have not been seriously disturbed for several hundred years.
when grass is consumed by animals at a faster rate than it can regrow
the maintenance of a species or ecosystem in order to ensure their perpetuation, with no concern as to their potential monetary value.
the use of environmental resources for profit
refers to resources, such as plants and animals, which can be regenerated if harvested at sustainable yields.
second growth forest
areas where cutting has occurred and a new, younger forest has arisen.
the removal of select trees in an area; this leaves the majority of the habitat in place and has less of an impact on the ecosystem.
when mature trees are cut over a period of time (usually 10-20 years); this leaves mature trees, which can reseed the forest, in place
the management of forest plantations for the purpose of harvesting timber.
slash and burn
when an area of vegetation is cut down and burned before being planted with crops.
fires that typically burn only the forest's underbrush and do little damage to mature trees. These fires actually serve to protect the forest from more harmful fires by removing underbrush and dead materials that would burn quickly and at high temperatures.
piles of gangue, which is the waste material that results from mining.
traditional subsistence agriculture
when each family in a community grows crops for themselves and rely on animal and human labor to plant and harvest crops.
creating flat platforms in the hillside that provide a level planting surface, which reduces soil runoff from the slope.
also known as plantations, these are planted and managed tracts of trees of the same age that are harvested for commercial use.
broad category under which selective cutting and shelter-wood cutting fall; selective deforestation.