absorbed and adopted many of the religious ideas of the east, christianity was one, got ideas from judaism, orphism, hellenistic thought
belief that body is the prison of the soul
Effects of Support of Christianity by Emperors
created an orthodox set of beliefs and an organizational system based on the Roman empire
made Christianity the official religion, practicing paganism criminal
church courts that had jurisdiction over ecclesiastical matters
originatd with Arius who denied that Christ was divine and co-eternal with God - two propositions of Orthodox belief. Arius held that God was uncreated and unchangeable, Jesus was created by the will of God and was therefore not co-eternal. Therefore, Jesus stands somewhere between God and humanity
a. Constantine called a council of church leaders to address this disagreement
b. Council produced the Nicene Creed which defined the Orthodox position that Christ is eternally begotten of the Father and of the same substance as the Father.
c. Arius and his follows were banished.
d. Participation in religion by one emperor led others to follow.
defined the Orthodox position that Christ is eternally begotten of the Father and of the same substance as the Father
Bishop Ambrose of Milan
Theodosius wanted Ambrose to hand over cathedral, Ambrose didn't, changed future interactions
Administration of the Church
1. Early church organized itself off of the Roman Empire
2. Bishops made their headquarters or sees in the urban centers of the old Roman dioceses, had jurisdiction in the dioceses.
3. Center of bishop's authority was his cathedral.
Weak empire made people think the church was capable of providing leadership.
Bishop of Rome
Rome was important to the church because Peter had been executed there
Paul urged Christians to bring the "good news" of Christ to all peoples
Saint Martin of Tours
Beginnings of Christianity in Gaul can be traced to Saint Martin of Tours, a Roman soldier who had a vision of Christ after giving clothes to a beggar.
Main Goal of Missionaries
convert kings, tribal leaders; the people would follow
Royal Acceptance of Christianity
Germanic Kings accepted Christianity because they believed the Christian God was more powerful.
Christians taught obedience to kingly authority, charisma associated with kings
Pope Gregory I
I sent monks to Britain to convert the English which had far reaching consequences because Britain later served as a base for the Christianization of Europe
Assimilation of Pagan Traditions
4. Pagan customs could not be entirely stamped out and Christain missionaries often pursued a policy of assimilation, easing the conversion of pagans by stressing similarities between Paganism and Christianity.
5. Pagan holidays were merged with Christian ones - Saint Valentines Day
intended to strengthen the newly baptized through stories about the lives of Christ and the saints.
sinner publicly confessed sins and carried out penance
punishment codes, provide information about law, cultural beliefs through religious law
Early Christian Views on Classical Thought
1. Christians in the first and second centuries believed that Christ would soon fulfill his promise to return and that the end of the world was near, considered knowledge and learning useless, thought that Roman thought was filth
2. Christianity was initially not accepting to classical thought
3. Christianity did encourage adjustment to the ideas and institutions of the Roman world, and eventually had to adapt their Roman education to their Christian beliefs
Adoption of Classical Thought
4. Saint Paul thought Christians should study the best of ancient thought because it would direct their minds to God
5. Early Christian's adoption of their world is reflected in views on women, homosexuality
Early Christian Thoughts on Women, Homosexuality
a. Jesus considered women the equal of men in his plan of salvation
b. Attributed no poor qualities to women
c. Jesus stressed love for god and fellow humans
d. Later writers describe Christianity as a religion of renunciation and asceticism ->Platonic-Hellenistic
e. Homosexuality was not considered immoral, almost commonplace among the wealthy
Church Views on Marriage and sex
6. Church thought that God had established marriage, but believed it was a concession to weak people who could not stand celibacy
a. Sex was a sinful act
b. Every child was conceived by a sinful act ->original sin
c. Celibacy was the highest good
Saint Augustine of Hippo
a. Born into an urban family in N. Africa
b. Father was pagan, mother Christian
c. Went to local school which consisted of studying Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Terence.
d. Learning meant memorization
e. Augustine went to Carthage to further his education, experimented in Christianity, was baptized
f. Became bishop of Hippo Regius in N Africa
g. Was a renowned preacher, defender of orthodox Christianity
a. Augustine's autobiography
b. Written in the form of a prayer
c. Describes Augustine's moral struggle between spiritual and intellectual aspirations and his sensual and material self
d. Marks the synthesis of Greco-Roman and Christian thought
Effects of Augustine's Ideas
ideas on sin, grace, redemption became the foundation of subsequent Christian philosophy, believed that the basic force in an individual is the will. o
Augustine's Definition of Will
the power of the soul to hold on to or obtain an object without constraint. According to Augustine, God restores the strength of the will through grace which is transmitted though the sacraments by the action of the Spirit
City of God
written in response to pagans who blamed the conquering of Rome in 410 on the Christians. Presents a moral interpretation of the Roman government
Augustine's View of History
history is the account of God acting in time., reveals that there are 2 kinds of people, those who live according to the flesh in the City of Babylon and those who live according to the spirit in the city of God. City of Babylon=Hell
Augustine's Views on States
8. Augustine maintained that states came into existence as the result of Adam's fall and people's inclination to sin.
9. State is a necessary evil, but can work for good
10. Government form doesn't matter, but must provide justice
Origins of Monastic Life
a. Individuals and small groups withdrew from cities to seek god through prayer in caves and shelters in the desert/mountains
b. Large colonies of monks emerged in the deserts of Upper Egypt, called hermits
c. Many women were attracted to monastic life
d. Ordinary people soon began to recognize monks as holy people and sought them as spiritual guides
Church Disapproval of Eremitical Life
a. Monks sometimes claimed to have direct communications with God - then they didn't need the rest of the organized church
b. Basil of Caersarea argued that eremitical life posed the danger of expressive concern with the self and did not provide opportunity to perform charity.
Encouraged by Saint Basil, collective living in monasteries, which provided an environment for training in all virtues and freedom from self-deception.
encouraged long hours of prayer, fasting, self-flagellation
Saint Patrick (Monasticism)
Patrick carried the tradition of self-mortification to Ireland, so Irish monasteries followed the eastern form
established a monastery, the Vivarium, where educated men copied secular and religious manuscripts, which would become common in the medieval and modern worlds
a. Outlined a code of regularity, discipline and moderation
b. Each monk got adequate food and sleep
c. Self-destructive acts were forbidden
d. Monk spent part of the day in formal prayer, the rest of the day was passed in study and manual labor.
4. After a year, the monk made 3 vows Stability - promised to live his entire life in the monastery. Intended to prevent wandering Conversion of manners - strive to improve himself to become closer to God Obedience to the abbot Rule expresses the assimilation of the Roman spirit into Western monasticism. Reflects Roman concern for order, organization, respect for law.
Implications of Rule
5. Rule implies that a person who wants to become a monk/nun need no previous experience or even a desire towards the religious life - led to diversity in personal backgrounds
6. Benedictine monasticism struck a balance between asceticism and idleness - provided opportunities for people with different talents and contrasts with Cassiodorus's narrow concept of a monetary
Material Successes of Benedictine Monasticism
a. Pushed back forest and wasteland
b. Experimented with crop rotation
c. Made a significant contribution to the agricultural development of Europe.
conducted schools for children,
a. Some learned about herms and prescriptions, became medical providers
b. Some copied manuscripts
c. Governments relied on monasteries for educated men
Differences between Eastern and Western Monasticism
a. Each individual house in the Byzantine world developed its own typikon, or set of rules for organization and behavior.
b. Contained regulations about diet, clothing, liturgical functions, election of officials
c. Eastern monasteries weren't as stable as western ones; Orthodox monks moved between monasteries
d. Education was never a central feature of eastern monasteries
i. Monks and nuns had to be literate
ii. Children destined for monastic life were taught to read
iii. Some monks studied writing, but no monastery assumed responsibility for the training of the local young.
set of rules for organization or behavior
Cultural Influence of Eastern Monasteries
Bishops and patriarchs of the Greek church were recruited only from the monasteries so the Greek houses had a cultural influence
3 Models of Ethnic Formation among the Germanic People
1). ID shaped by military family
2). Central Asian Steppe Peoples
3). Alamanni and Slavs
Germanic People w/ ID shaped by military family
Followers assimilated the "kernal family's" traditions and myths which traced their origin to divine ancestry, Kernel families stayed in power through military success
Central Asian Steppe Peoples
ex. Huns, Avars, Alans.
Polyethnic, seminomadic groups led by steppe commanders, formed large confederations whose success depended on constant expansion, use of terror. A defeat could cause the confederation to dissolve.
Alamanni and Slavs
Unknown if there was a collective ID, loosely organized bands of peoples who lacked leadership
Formation of Barbarian Ethnic Groups
Did not reflect a common event, but was a continuing and dynamic process
prisoners of war, were settled with their families in Gaul and Italy under the supervision of Roman prefects and landowners
free barbarian units that were stationed near major cities, a type of affiliated Barbarian group, were given a share of tax revenues from the region
Ostrogothic king, established capital at Ravenna, won control of Italy, Adriatic, pursued a policy of assimilation between the Germans and Romans, maintained close relations with the emperor in Constantinople, administration fell apart after his death
established a Frankish kingdom, began expansion out of Belgium, converted to Catholicism, became a defender of Roman Catholicism, conquered the Visigoths, made Paris his capital, founder of Merovingian dynasty
Romanization of Britain
a. Britons had become Romanized
b. After the Roman defeat at Adrianople, Roman troops were withdrawn from Britain, leaving it unprotected
c. Picts from Scotland in the North
d. Angles, Saxons, Jutes assaulted England
e. Germanic tribes took over everywhere but Scotland where they couldn't stop the Picts and Wales (Celts and native Britons)
Basic unit of Germanic society, members of a folk believed they were from a common ancestor, kinship offered protection, law was custom, friendly tribes respected each other's customs
a. The chief was elected from the male members of the strongest family
b. Led the tribe in war, settled disputes, offered sacrifices to the gods, conducted negotiations
war band, associated with the chief, the bravest men in the tribe, swore loyalty to the chief, fought with him in battle, socially egalitarianism existed among members of the war band.
a. In Germanic law, all crimes were committed against a person
b. Each person had a monetary value, called the wergeld to the tribe
c. If a suspect agreed to pay the wergeld and the victim accepted, there was peace, otherwise a blood feud ensued.
d. Passed by oral tradition
Codification of Germanic Law
Germans had no need for written law, but in the 6th century tribal chiefs began to collect, write, and publish lists of customs because they were being converted and monks wanted to read about German customs
Clovis's Salic Law
isn't really a law code but a list of fines for certain offenses- Germanic law wasn't concerned with abstract justice
Women in Germanic Society
Women performed the heavy work, a mark of a male-dominated society, also did spinning/weaving,Law codes suggest that women were considered family property, Women of childbearing age had a high wergeld, Codes also protected the virtue of women - imposed heavy fines on abusers
a. Most villages had an oven and a smith who could make farm tools and weapons
b. Eventually Germans produced weapons that were superior to the Romans'
-Gift giving became a common practice, conferred status of the giver and indebted the recipient.
-Goods that could not be produced in the village were acquired through raids and war, not commerce - warfare determined status and economy
Clovis's empire included France and Southwest Germany by early 6th century
a. Clovis won Germanic tribes support by becoming Christian
b. Merovingians (family) ruled empire for 200 years
c. Carolingians took over after his family
Defeated Muslim invaders at Battle of Tours, Christians won because of supply lines, Muslims consider this a small fight
Treaty of Verdun
Thee great-great-grandsons divided the empire causing disorder
presided over civitas, raised troops, collected royal revenues, provided local law,
Mayor of the Palace
supervised legal, financial, household officials, governed when the king was gone
wanted to be king, pope helped him come to power by removing the existing king
came after Pippin, Crowned Holy Roman emperor by Leo III on Christmas Day, motto was revival of the Roman empire, wanted to reestablish imperialistic Roman ideas that connected to the new Roman church
secretary and biographer,
Qualities of Charlemagne
intelligent, effective speaker, 4 wives, militaristic genius, sparked cultural revival
Military Campaigns (Charlemagne)
fought over 50, only defeat was against Basques in Spain, expanded the Frankish kingdom to all of continental Europe except Spain, Scandinavia, S. Italy, and Slavic east
divided the empire into 600 countries based on Merovingian civitas, each was governed by a count
agents of the king to check on the counts
Intellectual Revival (Charlemagne)
monasteries made religious boos, illuminated manuscripts, law codes, collections of letters, Charlemagne brought together learned men, scholars copied books made libraries, established schools, perserved knowledge of ancient civilizations, more advanced literature developed
Northumbrian, emperor's chief advisor on religion and education, prepared emperor's official documents, wrote moral models setting behavioral standards for royalty
wrote commentaries on scripture, The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, discussed validity, compared sources, used critical judgement, considered the first scientific intellect among the Germanics
Roman type is derived, upper and lower case letters, used less space
Louis the Pious
took over after Charlemagne, divided the empire several times among his sons, they fought
Collapse of Carolingian Empire
office of count became hereditary, nobles acquired several countries, nobles could block the king's authority
Rise of Feudalism
kings and magnates bought support and loyalty of people whose lands were confiscated from the church, increased power of counts
power of wealthy depended on land, which was worked by peasants, farmers gave up freedom for protection, though a series of fines became bound to the land - serfs
rights, powers, lifestyles of military elite
Vikings were Germanics from Scandinavia, uncivilized, attacked across Europe, had ships but Carolingian Empire didn't.
Reasons for Viking Attacks
overpopulation, climate conditions, crop failures, looking for trade and commerce
Took N. Italy, went to Rhineland, Burgundy, attacked isolated villages, monasteries, sold prisoners to the East, didn't colonize
Sacked Rome, Held Spain, great seamen, attacked mediterranean, less destructive
Effects of Attacks
accelerated the development of feudalism, lords provided defense, lords took political power, decentralization
Stabilization of Europe
Charles the Simple returned lands to Rollo, Viking invasions stopped, those that remained became Christian, supported Charles, Normans and French assimilated, Hugh Capet is elected, French history begins
sets up government in England, unites 7 kingdoms of England, builds defenses
German king, stopped Magyars, allied with church, crowned by the pope - foundation for Holy Roman Empire, became powerful in N Italy, catalyzed economic recovery through access to Byzantine markets
abbey established by William the Pious, stressed The Rule, eventually stood for clerical celibacy, end of sale of church offices, commoners gave land to Cluny, Cluniac properties were protected and Cluny amassed hundreds of monasteries in Spain and France
combined a simple liturgical life, rejection of traditional sources of income (serfs) and innovative economic practices, experienced dynamic growth and rapid expansion
Reform of the Papacy
began under Pope Leo IX, issued decrees against violence, clerical marriage. church removed influence of Roman aristocrats by leaving the choice of the pope to the college of cardinals
Pope Gregory VII/Hildebrand
believed that the pope was the vicar of God on earth, Papal orders were the order of God, insisted on freedom of the church to obey canon law, ended lay investiture, ended appointment of church officials by lay authorities because this disrupted spiritual authority
End of Investiture Problems
Created a dispute whether the king or church had control over subjects including clergy, Henry IV was suspended from kingship, made European leaders afraid to challenge Pope,
bishops were to be chosen in the presence of the emperor, giving the lay ruler a veto power of sorts
11th and 12th Century Papal Reform
expanded papal chapel, curia made laws for all of Christendom, papal legates published these laws at councils - assemblies of clergy, papa curia became the first well-organized institution of monarchial authority in Europe.