social identity theory
the theory that people favor ingroups and discriminate against outgroups in order to enhance their own self esteem
minimal group paradigm
An experimental paradigm in which researchers create groups based on arbitrary and seemingly meaningless criteria an then examine how the members of theses minimal groups are inclined to behave toward one another.
A supporter of women's claims to the same rights and treatment as men.
Practice of placing children with special needs in regular classroom settings, with the support of professionals who provide special education services
Attempts to teach children in ways that recognize the contributions of many cultures in the United States
national, racial, or ethnic groups within a larger cultural group
A group within a society whose members share beliefs and values that differ from those held by the larger society of which they are a group
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
like to work with others to achieve a common goal and are more sensitive to the needs of others.
All the other "lessons" that students learn along with the subject matter.
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
visible culture (explicit and overt)
The elements of culture that are outwardly shown and observable.
invisible culture (implicit and covert)
The elements of culture that are not outwardly visible.
Political boundary that coincides with cultural breaks in the landscape, such as language, religion, and ethnicity
a limited border of cultural differences that can hinder someone's comprehension of people from a different cultural background
The knowledge, experience or connections one has had through the course of their life that enables them to succeed more so than someone with a less experience background; being able to play the violin, speak multiple languages or talk knowledgeably about art
Creation of a split in a complementary way (go in opposite directions); each person will drive the other to more extremes of his/her own style, such as dominance or submission
stereotyping with social science warrant
is a concept that emerged from the work of the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire (1970). It guides students to identify real-life problems, refeclt on them, gather information, share it with peers, and collectively find solutions. they become active learners and participants in their own reality
students who approach learning intuitively rather than analytically and logically. These students tend to find success in cooperative learning situations and group work
study of a particular group of people
education for pluralism
person who wants to know how the world actually works and is willing to analyze the world carefully for himself or herself
structure of schooling
features as differences among urban, rural, and suburban schools as well as differences between public and private schools
beliefs about IQ and testing
teachers, curricula, and teaching practices
teacher training and recruitment, tracking of students into certain curricula, teachers' expecations about what different children can learn, and differences in the quantity and quality of what is taught