Asian sea trading network
Divided, from West to East, into three zones prior to the European arrival: an Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; an Indian zone, with cotton textiles; and a Chinese zone, with paper, porcelain, and silks.
Indian city developed by the Portuguese as a major Indian Ocean base; developed an important Indo-European population.
Portuguese establishment at the southern end of the Persian Gulf; a major trading base.
City on the tip of the Malayan peninsula; a center for trade to the southeastern Asianislands; became a major Portuguese trading base.
Dutch establishment on Java; created in 1620.
Treaty of Gijanti
Reduced the remaining independent Javanese princes to vassals of the Dutch East India Company; allowed the Dutch to monopolize Java's coffee production.
Northern island of the Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s; site of a major Catholic missionary effort.
Southern island of the Philippines; a Muslim area able to successfully resist Spanish conquest.
Franciscan missionary who worked in India during the 1540s among outcast and lower-caste groups; later worked in Japan.
Robert Di Nobli
Italian Jesuit active in India during the early 1600s; failed in a policy of first converting indigenous elites.
First Ming emperor (1368-1403); drove out the Mongols and restored the position of the scholar-gentry.
Macao and Canton
The only two ports in Ming China where Europeans were allowed to trade.
The Water Margin, Monkey, and The Golden Lotus
Novels written during the Ming period; recognized as classics and established standards for Chinese prose literature.
Chinese admiral who led seven overseas trade expeditions under Ming emperor Yunglo between 1405 and 1423; demonstrated that the Chinese were capable of major ocean exploration.
Matteo Ricci and Adam Schall
Jesuit scholars at the Ming court; also skilled scientists; won few converts to Christianity.
Zhurchen people from region to the northeast of the Chinese empire; seized power and created the Qing dynasty after the collapse of the Ming.
The first Japanese daimyo to make extensive use of firearms; in 1573 deposed the last Ashikaga shogun; unified much of central Honshu; died in 1582.
General under Nobunaga; succeeded as a leading militarypower in central Japan; continued efforts to break power of the daimyos; became military master of Japan in 1590; died 1598.
Vassal of Toyotomo Hideyoshi; succeeded him as the most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate; established political unity in Japan.
Tokugawa capital, modern-day Tokyo; center of Tokugawa shogunate.
Island port in Nagasaki Bay; the only port open to foreigners, the Dutch, after the 1640s.
School of National Learning
18th-century ideology that emphasized Japan's unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Confucianism and other Chinese influences.
Slender, long-hulled vessels utilized by Portuguese; highly maneuverable and able to sail against the wind; key to development of Portuguese trade empire in Asia.
Economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe.
Dutch trading empire
The Dutch system extending into Asia with fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of a limited number of products.
Members of Roman Catholic religious orders.