Marbury v Madison
The Supreme Court's keystone power of Judicial Review was established by this case.
McCulloch v Maryland
A conflict arose between a state government and the Federal government, with the state government being declared subordinate to the Federal government where laws conflict. (Implied Powers)
Gibbons v Ogden
In this case the Supreme Court gave a wide definition to Congress' power to "regulate commerce... among the several states."
Scott v Sanford
Slaves were classified as property. This case fueled the flames that began the Civil War.
US v Carolene Products
The Court upheld a federal prohibition on the interstate shipment of filled milk, because it is a decision that should be made by Congress, not by courts.
Gitlow v New York
The Supreme court began in this case to identify the rights that were protected by the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Griswold v Connecticut
The case involved a Connecticut law that prohibited the use of contraceptives. By a vote of 7-2, the Supreme Court invalidated the law on the grounds that it violated the "right to marital privacy".
Brown v Board of Education
a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court that declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional.
Plessy v Ferguson
This famous case laid the groundwork for the "separate but equal doctrine" that limited the rights of minorities for decades.
Korematsu v United States
putting Japanese into internment camps was unconstitutional
Plyler v Doe
public schools were prohibited from denying immigrant students access to a public education
California v Bakke
ruled unconstitutional the admission process of the Medical School at the University of California at Davis, which set aside 16 of the 100 seats for African American students
Ex Parte Milligan
ruled that the application of military tribunals to citizens when civilian courts are still operating is unconstitutional
Ex Parte Merryman
the authority to suspend habeas corpus lay with Congress, not the president
Gideon v Wainwright
Free legal counsel was established in this case to be necessary in case the defendant in any criminal case cannot afford it.
Miranda v Arizona
those accused of a crime have are told their procedural due process rights
Roe v Wade
this highly controversial case the Supreme Court laid down what states can and cannot control in regards to abortions.
Reynolds v United States
that held that religious duty was not a suitable defense to a criminal indictment (Mormonism and polygamy)
Engel v Vitale
it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools
Sherbert v Verner
held that the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment required that government demonstrate a compelling government interest before denying unemployment compensation to someone who was fired because her job conflicted with her religion
Lemon v Kurtzman
ruled that Pennsylvania's 1968 Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which allowed the state Superintendent of Public Instruction to reimburse nonpublic schools (most of which were Catholic) for the salaries of teachers who taught secular material in these nonpublic schools, secular textbooks and secular instructional materials, violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment
Cox v Louisiana
It held that a state government cannot employ "breach of the peace" statutes against protesters engaging in peaceable demonstrations that may potentially incite violence.
Schenck v United States
"Clear and Present Danger" was established in this case as an acceptable reason for the limiting of free expression.
Olmstead v United States
the Court reviewed whether the use of wiretapped private telephone conversations, obtained by federal agents without judicial approval and subsequently used as evidence, constituted a violation of the defendant's rights provided by the Fourth and Fifth Amendments
Powell v Alabama
The Supreme Court ruled here that the right to counsel was required by law in death penalty trials.
Mapp v Ohio
The exclusionary rule was applied to state and local criminal prosecutions.
Gregg v Georgia
death penalty in the United States did not violate the Constitution