Covalent Bonding

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Single Covalent Bond

A bond formed when a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms

Structural Formulas

A chemical formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule or a polyatomic ion; each dash between two atoms indicates a pair of shared electrons

Unshared Pairs

A pair of valence electrons that is not involved in bonding

Double Covalent Bonds

A covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms

Triple Covalent Bonds

A covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms

Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond formed when one atom contributes both bonding electrons

Bond Dissociation Energy

The amount of energy required to break a covalent bond between atoms; this value is usually expressed in kJ per mol of substance

Resonance Structures

One of two or more equally valid dot structures for a molecule or polyatomic ion; the actual bonding is a hybrid, or micture, of the resonance structures

Diamagnetic

A substance that is weakly repelled by a magentic field

Paramagnetic

A term used to describe a substance that shows a relatively strong attraction to an external magnetic field; these substances have molecules containing one or more unpaired electrons

Nonpolar Covalent Bond

A bond formed when the atoms in a molecules are alike and the bonding electrons are shared equally

Polar Covalent Bond/ Polar Bond

A bond formed when two different atoms are joined by a covalent bond and the bonding electrons are unequally shared

Dipole

A molecule that has two electrically charged regions or poles

Van Der Waals Forces

A term used to describe the weakest intermolecular attractions; these include the dispersion forces and dipole interactions

Dispersion Forces

The weakest kind of intermolecular attraction; this attraction is thought to be cause by the motion of electrons

Dipole Interactions

A weak intermolacular force resulting from the attraction of oppositely charged regions of polar molecules

Hydrogen Bonds

A relatively strong itnermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom in the same molecule or one nearby

Network Solids

A substance in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other

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