the process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual's personality, thereby conditioning the individual to conform to society's expectations.
Rewards or punishments used to force conformity to norms.
A reward or punishment that is given by some formal organization or regulatory body, such as the government, the police, a corporation, or a school
A spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or group.
The enforcing of norms through either internalization or sanctions.
A system of beliefs or ideas that justifies some social, moral, religious, political, or economic interests held by a social group or by society.
A long-term conscious effort to promote or prevent social change usually involving large numbers of people
The knowledge and tools that people use to ,manipulate their environment for practical purposes.
A situation in which some aspects of the culture change less rapidly, or lag behind, other aspects of the same culture.