bio 100 ch. 3

225 terms by eakim

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skeletal system

consists of bones, bone marrow, cartilage, joints, ligaments, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, and bursa

periosteum

tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone

peri-

surrounding

compact bone

dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones

spongy bone

lighter, and not as strong, as compact bone. Commonly found in the ends and inner portions of long bones

medullary cavity

located in the shaft of a long bone and is surrounded by compact bone

endosteum

tissue that lines the medullary cavity

end-

within

red bone marrow

located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes

hemopoietic

pertaining to the formation of blood cells

hem/o

blood

-poietic

pertaining to

yellow bone marrow

functions as a fat storage area, is composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity

cartilage

smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones.

articular cartilage

covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints; makes smooth joint movement possible and protects the bones from rubbing against each other.

meniscus

curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jaw.

diaphysis

shaft of a long bone

epiphysis

covered with articular cartilage and is the wide end of a long bone.

foramen

opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass

process

normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons

joints

aka articulations, are the place of union between two or more bones.

fibrous joint

consisting of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold the bones tightly together

fontanelles

aka soft spots; normally present on the skull of a newborn. These flexible soft spots facilitate passage of the infant through the birth canal

cartilaginous joint

allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage.

pubic symphysis

cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth. Is located between the pubic bones in the front of the pelvis

synovial joint

created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions

synovial capsule

outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint

synovial membrane

lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid.

synovial fluid

flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the joint possible

ligaments

bands of fibrous tissue that forms joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage

bursa

a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction such as the shoulder, elbow

axial skeleton

protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory system

appendicular skeleton

makes body movement possible and also protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction

skull

consists of the eight bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and six bones in the middle ear

cranium

made up of the following eight bones, is the portion of the skull that encloses the brain

crani

brain

frontal bone

forms the forehead

parietal bone

form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium

occiptial bone

forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium

temporal bone

form the sides and base of the cranium

sphenoid bone

forms part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the orbit

ethmoid bone

forms part of the posterior portion of the nose, the orbit, and the floor of the cranium

auditory ossicle

six tiny bones of the middle ear

external auditory meatus

located in the temporal bone on each side of the skull; is the opening of the external auditory canal of the outer ear

nasal bones

form the upper part of the bridge of the nose

zygomatic bones

aka cheekbones, articulate with the frontal bone

maxillary bones

aka maxillae, form most of the upper jaw

palatine bones

form part of the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose

lacrimal bone

make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of the eye

inferior conchae

thin, scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose

vomer bone

forms the base of the nasal septum

mandible

aka jawbone; only movable bone of the skull

temporomandibular joint

where the mandible is attached to the skull

thoracic cavity

the bony structure that protects the heart and lungs

ribs

aka costals

sternum

aka breastbone; forms the middle of the front of the rib cage and is divided into three parts

manubrium

bony structure that forms of the upper portion of the sternum

body of the sternum

bony structure that forms the middle portion of the sternum

xiphoid process

structure made of cartilage that forms the lower part of the sternum

pectoral girdle

supports the arms and hands; aka shoulder girdle

clavicle

aka collar bone; a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula

scapula

aka shoulder blade

acromion

an extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder

humerus

bone of the upper arm

radius

smaller and shorter bone in the forearm; runs up the thumb side of the forearm

ulna

larger and longer bone of the forearm

olecranon process

aka funny bone; a large projection on the upper end of the ulna; forms the point of the elbow and exposes a nerve that tingles when struck

carpals

bones that form the wrist

metacarpal

five bones that form the palms of the hand

phalanges

14 bones of the fingers

vertebrae

bony structure units of the spinal cord

cervical vertebrae

first set of seven vertebrae that form the neck

thoracic vertebrae

make up the 2nd set of 12 vertebrae and form the outward curve of the spine

lumbar vertebrae

make up the 3rd set of five vertebrae and form the inward curve of the lower spine

sacrum

slightly curved, traingular-shaped bone near the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back.

coccyx

aka tailbone; forms the end of the spine and is actually made up of 4 small vertebrae that are fused together

intervertebral disks

made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other. they are shock absorber and allow for movement of the spinal cord

pelvic girdle

protects internal organs and supports the lower extremities; aka pelvic or hips

ilium

broad blade-shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone

sacroiliac

slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and posterior portion of the ilium

sacr/o

sacrum

ischium

forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone, bears the weight of the body when sitting

pubis

forms the anterior portion of the pubic bone, is located just below the urinary bladder

pubic bones

formed by the ileum, ischium, and pubis

acetabulum

aka hip socket; large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint

femur

upper leg bone; aka thigh bone; the largest bone

knees

complex joints that make possible movement between the upper and lower leg

patella

aka kneecap; bony anterior portion of the knee

popliteal

referring to the posterior space behind the knee where the ligaments, vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located

cruciate ligaments

make possible the movements of the knee

tibia

aka shinbone; larger, weight-bearing bone in the anterior of the lower leg

fibula

smaller of the two bones of the lower leg

malleolus

rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle

ankles

form the joint between the lower leg and the foot and each are made up of 7 tarsal

tarsal

7 of them make up the ankle

talus

anklebone that articulates with the tibia and fibula

calcaneus

aka heel bone; largest of the tarsal bones

metatarsals

form that part of the foot to which the toes are attached

phalanges

bones of the toes

chiropractor

holds a doctor of chiropractice degree and specializes the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine

orthopedic surgeon

aka orthopedist, is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles

osteopath

holds a doctor of osteopathy degree and uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation

podiatrist

holds a doctor of podiatry and specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot

ankylosis

loss, or absence, of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure

ankyl

crooked, bent, or stiff

arthrosclerosis

stiffness of the joints, especially in the elderly

bursitis

inflammation of a bursa

burs

bursa

chondromalacia

abnormal softening of cartilage

chondroma

a slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells

costochondritis

inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum

cost/o

rib

hallux valgus

aka bunion; an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe

hemarthrosis

blood within a joint due to a joint injury but can also occur spontaneously in patients taking blood-thinning medication or those having a blood clotting disorder

synovitis

inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint

dislocation

aka luxation; total displacement of a bone from its joint

subluxation

partial displacement of a bone from its joint

arthritis

inflammatory condition of one or more joints

osteoarthritis

aka wear-and-tear arthritis; is most commonly associated with aging

spondylosis

aka spinal osteoarthritis; degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function

spondyl

vertebrae

gouty arthritis

aka gout; a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints

rheumatoid arthritis

abbreviated as RA; a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked.

ankylosing spondylitis

form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae

ankylosing

progressive stiffening of a joint or joints

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

autoimmune disease that affects children aged 16 years or less with symptoms that include stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue

herniated disk

aka slipped or ruptured disk; breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots

lumbago

aka low back pain; is pain of the lumber region of the spine

-ago

disease conditioned

spondylolisthesis

forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum

-listhesis

slipping

spina bifida

congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it.

kyphosis

abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side

lordosis

abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine

lord

bend backward

scoliosis

abnormal lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine

scoli

curved

craniostenosis

malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures

fibrous dysplasia

bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous (scar-like) tissue and leads to uneven growth, brittleness, and deformity

ostealgia

aka osteodynia; main pain in a bone

osteitis

aka ostitis; inflammation of bone

osteomalacia

aka adult rickets; abnormal softening of bones in adults and is caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, and/or phosphate

osteomyelitis

inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone

myel

bone marrow

osteonecrosis

death of bone tissue to a lack of insufficient blood supply

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