Sciences involved in criminalistics
Biology, Geology, Chemistry, & Physics
stiffness of death
"father of forensic toxicology"
approximate # of crime labs in the US (federal, state, & country)
LAPD (Los Angeles Police Department)
oldest forensic lab in the US
first used fingerprints for the conviction of a murderer
established the comparison microscope as the indispensable tool of the modern firearms examiner
exchange of evidence principle
bite marks would not be likely to be found in a _________ case
Explanation for the rapid growth of crime labs during the last 25 years...
-advent of DNA profiling
-Supreme Court decisions in the 1960s
-staggering increase in crime rates in the US
post mortem, the body loses _________ degrees per hour until it reaches environmental temperature
Gender of victim
does not affect the rate of cooling of a dead body
A corpse was discovered in an apartment last November. It was that of a 50-year-old male who died of a heart attack. At the time of sicovery, the body temperature was determined to be 89 degrees Farenheit. What is the probable post mortem interval?
An expert witness must be able to demonstrate...
-education in his/her area of expertise
-skill in trade or profession of interest to the court
-significant experience in a relevant field
final evaluator of forensic evidence
As the post mortem interval increases...
the concentration of potassium in the vitreous humor of the eye decreases
the application of science to both criminal and civil lawsthe
relates to the concept of "general acceptance"
undertook the first definitive study of fingerprints as a method of personal identification
largest crime lab in the world
responsible for the examination of body fluids and organs for the presence of drugs and poisons
-comparison of hairs
developed the system of anthropometry
first "witness" to arrive at a crime scene
the study of teeth
established the first workable crime lab in Lyons, France
wrote the first treatise describing the application of science to the field of criminal investigation
creator of Sherlock Holmes
Pennsylvania Court System
[Superior Court] [Commonwealth Court]
[Common Pleas Court]________________________________________________
1[Magisterial District Judges] 3[Philadelphia Traffic Court]
2[Philadelphia Municipal Court] 4[Pittsburgh Municipal Court]
Law Enforcement & Corrections at the Federal Level
Executive Branch (President)
D.O.Justice D.O.Treasury D.O. Homeland Security
-Attorney -FCEN -US Customs Service General -TSA
-DEA -Secret Service
-ATF -Coast Guard
-Bureau of Prisons
-US Parole Comission
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Drug Enforcement Administrations
Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms
Financial Crimes Enforcement Network
US Citizenship & Immigration Services
Transportation Security Administration
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center
Doctor Paul Kirk
headed one of the first crime science divisions in Berkeley
-wrote the first treatise describing the application of scientific disciplines to the field of criminal investigation in 1893
-"Archiv fur Kriminal Anthropologie und Kriminalistik"
*serves as a medium for reporting improved methods of scientific crime detection
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
-wrote Sherlock Holmes
-"A Study in Scarlett"
*test for determining human & animal blood
-established the comparison microscope as the indispensable tool of the modern firearms examiner
-devised a relatively simple procedure for determining the blood group of a dried bloodstain, a technique that he immediately in criminal investigations
Edgar Allan Poe
-wrote the first detective story
*Murder in the Rue Morgue
-head of the mob (organized crime)
-Valentine's Day Massacre (1929)
Matthieu J.B. Orfila
-first expert witness to use the Marsh Test in court (to convict La farge)
-started writing and research on hand prints
Walter C. McCrone
-world's preeminent microscopist
-used microscopy often in conjunction with other analytical methodologies to examine evidence in thousands of criminal & civil cases throughout a long & illustrious career
-police chief in Berkeley, CA
-asked Berkeley professor to help identify poison
-headed the first US university institute for crimonology & criminalistics at University of California at Berkeley
*US LAPD (1923)
Doctor Karl Landsteiner
-4 blood groups
Sir William Herschel
-personalization of hand print
-used finger prints to convict someone of murder
-studied the differences of blood among species
Albert S. Osborn
-wrote "Questioned Documents"
-developed fundamental principles of document examination
-responsible for the acceptance of documents as scientific evidence by the courts
Samuel Clemens (aka Mark Twain)
-wrote about Forensic techniques before they were used
-french officer & biometrics researcher who created anthropometry, an identification system based on physical measurements (Bertillionage)
-started the first forensics lab in Lyons, France
-student of Bertillon
-Locard Exchange Principle
*when any one person comes into contact with another person or object, cross transfer of physical evidence occurs
The metal added in the second step of the three-part chemical reaction mechanism of the Marsh Test
appellate court that reviews cases concerning criminal offenses
Sketch of the suspect(s)
not necessarily included in a rough sketch
Procedure of physical evidence
bloodstained garments should be packaged separately in paper bags
depict injuries and weapons at the scene
If the crime scene includes a dead body, the photographer should...
The most basic methods of crime scene recording
A victim's bloodied clothing should not be packaged in...
-sealed, airtight containers
-plastic Ziploc bags
Physical evidence at a hit-and-run scene could include...
-fiber & tissue
secure the scene
the first officer arriving at a crime scene, after providing or obtaining medical assistance for the injured and effecting an arrest of suspects (if possible) should immediately...
skill of personnel processing the crime scene
success in the recognition and collection of physical evidence is determined primarily by the...
produce a finished crime scene sketch
CAD programs enhance the ability to...
Disposition of items after collection
is not necessarily included in the note taking at a crime scene
Mincey v. Arizona
-heard in the Supreme Court, dealt with the impropriety of the warantless collection of physical evidence at a homicide scene
AIDS and Hepatitis B
The presence of blood and semen at crime scenes exposes investigators to...
pattern that would absolutely require more than one investigator at a crime scene
in the process of a legal arrest
police aren't required to obtain a search warrant if they are...
permit comparisons to be made with the evidence
The collection of standard reference samples at the crime scene is important because they...
A properly maintained chain of custody isn't the responsibilty of the...
The removal of any evidence from a person or from the scene of a crime must be done in conformity with the privileges of the ___ Amendment to the Constitution
the manner in which the evidence is collected and preserved
The successful outcome of a criminal investigation is almost always directly related to...
determining the natural variations that exist in evidence
The evidence collecter is not concerned with...
Physical evidence can be collected from...
-the crime scene
cannot be placed in an airtight container
1st officer at the scene
The obligation to maintain the integrity of the evidence belongs to the...
the standard reference sample (control) doesn't share characteristics with evidence at the crime scene
Physical evidence can't be used to exonerate of exclude a person from suspicion if...
Evidence with _______ characteristics can lead to a determination of commo origin (single source)
The likelihood of finding class physical evidence is ________ the likelihood of finding physical evidence with individual characteristics
Physical evidence is considered to have _______ as that of eyewitness (testimonial) evidence
support other investigative findings
the corroborative use of physical evidence means that it can be used to...
Crime scene reconstruction does not involove the...
The combined DNA index system became fully operational in...
aren't maintained in forensics databases
Evidence of tampering with the body after death can be obtained by evaluating...
Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System
Automated Integrated Fingerprint Identification System
Combined DNA Index System
National Integrated Ballistics Information Network
International Forensic Automative Point Data Query
Shoeprint Image Capture And Retrieval
Crime scene reconstruction requires the piecing together of...
-accounts given by witness and suspects
-input from the medical examiner
-the story told by evidence recovered at the crime scene
-the laboratory results obtained by the criminalist working on the case
If the lab can piece broken glass from a window or headlight together then the evidence has ________ characteristics
whether they have a common origin
A comparitive analysis subjects a suspect specimen and a control specimen to the same tests and examination for the ultimate purpose of determining...
this definitely demonstrates common origin when a match is made
The "jigsaw fit" of known and questioned fragments is important for court presentation primarily because...
Physical evidence that can be used to aid in crime scene reconstruction includes...
Evidence associated with a group and not to a single source is said to possess _____________ characteristics
The # and type of tests needed to identify a substance must be sufficient to ________ all other substances from consideration
was used to calculate the frequency for blood proteins in the Nicole Brown Simpson case
Green River Killer
was convicted because of the physical evidence presented on paint
basic metric unit of mass
formula for finding the frequency of a wavelength
100 degrees C
boiling point of water
physical state that has both volume and shape
At present, about ________ elements have been found
Properties of a physical substance...
is defined as mass per unit volume
A piece of glass is emersed in a liquid. It proceeds to float on the liquid's surface. This shows that the density of glass is _________ the density of the liquid
Refractive Index & Density
The two most important physical properties of glass for forensic comparisons
The exit side of the glass
The larger opening of a crater-shaped hole in glass made by the penetration of a projectile indicates...
Silicon Dioxide (SiO2)
chemical composition of glass
The fracture pattern of glass usually has...
Perpendicular to the side on which the force was applied
Stress marks on the edge of a radial crack near the point of impact are...
Peoples from the ancient times have been making glass objects. If they live near the sea, what ingredient did they add so they could melt the sand...
shortest wavelength of the electromagetic spectrum
amount of matter an object contains
Glass that can be physically pieced together has _______ characteristics
solids that don't have an orderly arrangement of atoms
If an object is imersed in a liquid of lesser density, it'll...
the bending of light waves due to differences in velocity through mediums
A fracture line in glass ___________ terminate at an existing line fracture
larger soil particle than silt
difference between indices of refraction of crystal calcite
approximate # of shades of soil
When glass is immersed in a liquid and it appears invisible, according to refractive terms, its ___________ disappears
added to glass to give it more sparkle and hardness particularly if it is to be carved
used to distinguish soil colors
Types of glass
absorption spectrum equal to a "fingerprint"
If a subatance appears black ________ are absorbed
TLC uses ______ as its moving phase
Gas chromatography suffers a big drawback in that it doesn't produce specific identication. This is overcome by connecting the GC to...
used to analyze organic explosives and heat sensitive drugs
behavior of light
a particle fashion and a wave motion
known as the retention factor of how fast a substance moves within a chromatic system
techniques used to separate or distinguish mixtures
usually the carrier gas in gas chromatography
Gas & Liquid
have no shape
can be used to analyze
will reveal the identity of a sample
light source with photons with the least amount of energy
not likely to be used in a crime lab
change of a state from a solid to a gas
-used by chemists
-lists the names and symbols of all known elements
has the lowest frequency and wavelength
The attraction between molecules of a solid is ________ than the attraction of molecules in a liquid
a helium nucleus
Neutron Activation Analysis
-requires a nuclear reactor
-a non-destructive technique for identifying and quantifying trace elemnts in a test sample
-bombarding specimens with neutrons and then measuring the resultant gamma
can produce temperature between 7,000 and 10,000 degrees Celcius
all colors of light reflected
primary element in most bullets
high speed electrons
Protons and neutrons are of...
When an electron moves from a higher to a lower energy level, it...
substance used to generate high-temperature, stable plasma in ICP
radioactive isotope of hydrogen
Isotopes of hydrogen
particular set of wavelengths emitted from a substance
0 and 1
electrical charge and mass of a neutron, respectively
atom differing from another atom of the same element in the # of neutrons in its nucleus
+1 and 1
electrical charge and mass of a proton, respectively
-1 and 1/1837
electrical charge and mass of an electron, respectively
Contain trace elements
x-ray diffraction patterns are seen when the solid is...
protons and neutrons
conatined in the nucleus of an atom
In atomic absorption chromatography, the amount of light absorbed is ________ to the concentration of the elemnt in the test sample