established the comparison microscope as the indispensable tool of the modern firearms examiner
Explanation for the rapid growth of crime labs during the last 25 years...
-advent of DNA profiling
-Supreme Court decisions in the 1960s
-staggering increase in crime rates in the US
post mortem, the body loses _________ degrees per hour until it reaches environmental temperature
A corpse was discovered in an apartment last November. It was that of a 50-year-old male who died of a heart attack. At the time of sicovery, the body temperature was determined to be 89 degrees Farenheit. What is the probable post mortem interval?
An expert witness must be able to demonstrate...
-education in his/her area of expertise
-skill in trade or profession of interest to the court
-significant experience in a relevant field
As the post mortem interval increases...
the concentration of potassium in the vitreous humor of the eye decreases
responsible for the examination of body fluids and organs for the presence of drugs and poisons
wrote the first treatise describing the application of science to the field of criminal investigation
Pennsylvania Court System
[Superior Court] [Commonwealth Court]
[Common Pleas Court]________________________________________________
1[Magisterial District Judges] 3[Philadelphia Traffic Court]
2[Philadelphia Municipal Court] 4[Pittsburgh Municipal Court]
Law Enforcement & Corrections at the Federal Level
Executive Branch (President)
D.O.Justice D.O.Treasury D.O. Homeland Security
-Attorney -FCEN -US Customs Service General -TSA
-DEA -Secret Service
-ATF -Coast Guard
-Bureau of Prisons
-US Parole Comission
-wrote the first treatise describing the application of scientific disciplines to the field of criminal investigation in 1893
-"Archiv fur Kriminal Anthropologie und Kriminalistik"
*serves as a medium for reporting improved methods of scientific crime detection
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
-wrote Sherlock Holmes
-"A Study in Scarlett"
*test for determining human & animal blood
-established the comparison microscope as the indispensable tool of the modern firearms examiner
-devised a relatively simple procedure for determining the blood group of a dried bloodstain, a technique that he immediately in criminal investigations
Walter C. McCrone
-world's preeminent microscopist
-used microscopy often in conjunction with other analytical methodologies to examine evidence in thousands of criminal & civil cases throughout a long & illustrious career
-police chief in Berkeley, CA
-asked Berkeley professor to help identify poison
-headed the first US university institute for crimonology & criminalistics at University of California at Berkeley
*US LAPD (1923)
Albert S. Osborn
-wrote "Questioned Documents"
-developed fundamental principles of document examination
-responsible for the acceptance of documents as scientific evidence by the courts
-french officer & biometrics researcher who created anthropometry, an identification system based on physical measurements (Bertillionage)
-started the first forensics lab in Lyons, France
-student of Bertillon
-Locard Exchange Principle
*when any one person comes into contact with another person or object, cross transfer of physical evidence occurs
The metal added in the second step of the three-part chemical reaction mechanism of the Marsh Test
depict injuries and weapons at the scene
If the crime scene includes a dead body, the photographer should...
A victim's bloodied clothing should not be packaged in...
-sealed, airtight containers
-plastic Ziploc bags
Physical evidence at a hit-and-run scene could include...
-fiber & tissue
secure the scene
the first officer arriving at a crime scene, after providing or obtaining medical assistance for the injured and effecting an arrest of suspects (if possible) should immediately...
skill of personnel processing the crime scene
success in the recognition and collection of physical evidence is determined primarily by the...
Disposition of items after collection
is not necessarily included in the note taking at a crime scene
Mincey v. Arizona
-heard in the Supreme Court, dealt with the impropriety of the warantless collection of physical evidence at a homicide scene
permit comparisons to be made with the evidence
The collection of standard reference samples at the crime scene is important because they...
The removal of any evidence from a person or from the scene of a crime must be done in conformity with the privileges of the ___ Amendment to the Constitution
the manner in which the evidence is collected and preserved
The successful outcome of a criminal investigation is almost always directly related to...
determining the natural variations that exist in evidence
The evidence collecter is not concerned with...
the standard reference sample (control) doesn't share characteristics with evidence at the crime scene
Physical evidence can't be used to exonerate of exclude a person from suspicion if...
Evidence with _______ characteristics can lead to a determination of commo origin (single source)
The likelihood of finding class physical evidence is ________ the likelihood of finding physical evidence with individual characteristics
Physical evidence is considered to have _______ as that of eyewitness (testimonial) evidence
support other investigative findings
the corroborative use of physical evidence means that it can be used to...
Crime scene reconstruction requires the piecing together of...
-accounts given by witness and suspects
-input from the medical examiner
-the story told by evidence recovered at the crime scene
-the laboratory results obtained by the criminalist working on the case
If the lab can piece broken glass from a window or headlight together then the evidence has ________ characteristics
whether they have a common origin
A comparitive analysis subjects a suspect specimen and a control specimen to the same tests and examination for the ultimate purpose of determining...
this definitely demonstrates common origin when a match is made
The "jigsaw fit" of known and questioned fragments is important for court presentation primarily because...
Physical evidence that can be used to aid in crime scene reconstruction includes...
Evidence associated with a group and not to a single source is said to possess _____________ characteristics
The # and type of tests needed to identify a substance must be sufficient to ________ all other substances from consideration
was used to calculate the frequency for blood proteins in the Nicole Brown Simpson case
A piece of glass is emersed in a liquid. It proceeds to float on the liquid's surface. This shows that the density of glass is _________ the density of the liquid
Refractive Index & Density
The two most important physical properties of glass for forensic comparisons
The exit side of the glass
The larger opening of a crater-shaped hole in glass made by the penetration of a projectile indicates...
Perpendicular to the side on which the force was applied
Stress marks on the edge of a radial crack near the point of impact are...
Peoples from the ancient times have been making glass objects. If they live near the sea, what ingredient did they add so they could melt the sand...
When glass is immersed in a liquid and it appears invisible, according to refractive terms, its ___________ disappears
Gas chromatography suffers a big drawback in that it doesn't produce specific identication. This is overcome by connecting the GC to...
The attraction between molecules of a solid is ________ than the attraction of molecules in a liquid
Neutron Activation Analysis
-requires a nuclear reactor
-a non-destructive technique for identifying and quantifying trace elemnts in a test sample
-bombarding specimens with neutrons and then measuring the resultant gamma