Essentials of Medical Language Allan, Lockyer Ch 1-4

162 terms by bgelhaus

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supine

lying on back with palms up

prone

lying on belly with palms facing floor

superior

situated above, head

inferior

situated below, tail

proximal

vertically situated nearest to center of the body

distal

vertically situated away from the center of the body

medial

toward the middle of the body

lateral

situated at the side of a structure

anterior

situated in front, belly

posterior

situated in back

transverse, horizontal, cross section

divides the body into superior and inferior portions

sagittal

divides the body into left and right portions

frontal, coronal

divides the body into anterior and posterior portions

cyto-

cell

-logy

study of

-logist

specialist, one who studies

fertiliz-

to make fruitful

-ation

process

histo-

tissue

connective tissue

bind, support, protect, fill spaces and store fat

epithelial tissue

protect, secrete, absorb, and excrete

muscle tissue

control movement, stabilize and allow movement of joints

nervous tissue

transmit impulses for coordination, sensory reception, and motor actions

cartilage

nonvascular, firm connective tissue found mostly in joints; has a rubbery, flexible substance.

ligament

strips or bands of tough connective tissue that connect two structures

tendon

fibrous band that attaches muscle to the bone

homeo-

the same

-stasis

standstill, control

pneumon-

lung or air

-thorax

chest

-ary

pertaining to

-suffix

ending

prefix-

beginning

-ia

a condition of

-ation

a process of

pneumonia

a condition of the lung

respiration

a process of breathing

pre-

before

post-

after

-mature

normal pregnancy

bi-

two (both)

peri-

around

epi-

above

hypo-

below

micro-

small

macro-

large

myo-

muscle

cardial

heart

-al

pertaining to

prostrate

physically weak, exhausted lie flat on ground

prostate

base of the male bladder

mucous

mucous membrane

mucus

slime, snot

ileum

segment of small intestine

ilium

bone in pelvis

-a;-is

singular ending (diagnosis;allixa)

-ae;-es

plural ending (diagnoses;allixae)

hypotension

low blood pressure

hypertension

high blood pressure

-tens-

pressure (root)

-ion

action; condition

vaso-

blood vessel

-dila-

open

-constrict-

narrow; close up

-dermis

skin

adip-

fat;

-ose

full of

-al

pertaining to

-ic

pertaining to

-ous

pertaining to

Stratum corneum

dead cells

kerat-

hard protein

-in

substance

melan-

black pigment

-ar

pertaining to

sub-

below

intra-

within

trans-

across; through

an-

without

-alges-

sensation of pain

-ic

pertaining to

-itis

inflammation

pruritus

itching

excoriate

to scratch

excoriation

scratch marks

malign-

harmful

-oma

tumor; mass

pedis

fungal infection of the foot

capitis

fungal infection of the head

corporis

ring worm of the skin and hand

cruris

fungal infection of the groin

versicolor

fungal infection of the trunk of body

albicans

white

myc-

fungus

myo-

muscle

onychomyc-

nail fungus

-osis, -ia

condition

par-

alongside

-onych-

nail

edema

swelling

auto-

your own skin

-graft

transplant

homo-;allo-

someone elses skin

xeno-;hetero-

different species (pig)

abdomino-

stomach

-plasty

surgical repair

blepharo-

eyelid

mammo-

breast

rhino-

nose

orthopedic surgeons (orthopedists)

medical doctors (MDs)

osteopathic physicians (DO)

earned a doctor of osteopathy degree

chiropractors (DC)

doctoral degree

physical therapists (PT)

doctoral degree

podiatrists (DPM)

doctor of podiatric medicine

osteoporo-

bone; opening

-sis

condition

osteoporosis

condition in which the bones become more porous, brittle, and fragile and more likely to fracture

-penia

deficient

osteopenia

decreased calcification of bone; low bone density

BMD

bone mineral density

DEXA

dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (a measuring device that uses low energy radiation beams)

-malacia

abnormal softness

Osteomalacia

soft, flexible bones lacking in calcium (rickets)

Osteogen-;sarc-

bone creation; flesh

Osteogenic sarcoma

malignant tumor originating in bone-producing cells

mye-

bone marrow

Osteomyelitis

inflammation of bone tissue

closed (simple)

bone is broken but skin is not

open (compound)

bone edge breaks through skin

complete

bone is broken in atleast 2 fragments

incomplete

fracture does not extend across the bone

comminuted

bone is broken into pieces

pathologic

occurs at a site already weakened by a disease process

external fixation

casts, splints, traction

internal fixation

wires, plates, rods, screws, and pins

nonunion

fracture fails to heal

malunion

fracture fails to heal correctly

cervic-

neck

thorac-

chest

sacr-

sacrum

intervertebral discs

between; vertebra; pertaining to

*kyphosis

bent, humpback; condition = normal posterior curve of the spine that can be exaggerated in disease, usually thoracic region

*scoliosis - crooked

abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column, usually thoracic region

*lordosis

curve, swayback = normal forward curve of the lumbar spine that can be exaggerated in disease

frontal

front

parietal-wall

the two bones forming the sidewalls and roof of the cranium

occipital

back of the head/skull

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